Cascode Hybrid-Based WWV Receiver for 5 MHz
This was my favorite project of 2007. When I web published the original TRF
WWV receiver for 10 MHz in 2006, there were many
complaints that I used hard-to-find dual-gate MOSFETs and also that the AF stage lacked the
popcorn factor that this web site has become strongly associated with. In this
experimental project, these 2 concerns are addressed.
The cascode JFET and BJT amplifier stage used in this receiver is based upon the amplifer described in the Hybrid Cascode IF Amplifier article which was published in QST for December 2007 and designed by W7ZOI and WA7MLH. This amplifier topology has many advantages including high gain + low noise, that it can function well at DC voltages less than 12 VDC and that the noise figure does not degrade when the BJT bias (and stage gain) is lowered during AGC action. Please read the QST article and also refer to the W7ZOI web site for more details on the IF amplifier and the cascode hybrid topology.
Receiver Block Diagram
The receiver block diagram is shown above. To hear digitally recorded examples of this receiver, click here , here or here. No attempt was made to make these files sound better than they really are- there is signal fading, room noise etc. A electret microphone was placed near the loud speaker to record these audio samples. Note I am now compressing audio files in the mp3 format to allow listening by those who use Linux as their operating system. A supplemental web page to this main web page is linked here
Receiver Front End: Band Pass Filter and First RF Amplifier
This receiver is meant to interface with a standard 50 ohm feed line. Testing was performed
I built 3 separate bread boards of this receiver and tried varying the number of RF amps, using different detectors (as well as different detector followers) and eventually built and tested this basic receiver design for 5, 6 and 10 MHz. With respect to using the cascode hybrid amp (and probably any other amplifier type) in a TRF receiver, I learned 3 things:
1. Do not operate the RF amps at maximum gain. I built some very powerful amps with a Q2 source resistor of 47 ohms and over 6 volts bias on Q1. While powerful, this amp broke into oscillation and also consumed much current (nearly 20 ma).
2. Keep the RF stages at least 2-3 cm apart to reduce the chance of parasitic oscillations.
3. Keep the input band pass filter at least 2 cm from the Q1/Q2 amp or you might encounter some unwanted oscillations.
For the front end band pass filter, a reasonably narrow bandwidth was desired.
When sweeping early filter designs using a signal generator and oscilloscope, a
double humped response was noted. These filter designs used a 10 pF coupling capacitor. The coupling
capacitor was then decreased to 5 pF. To obtain the required 5 pF, two
10 pF capacitors were placed in series as shown in the photograph directly to
I struggled with this filter design because one end is terminated in the gate resistance of Q2 of the hybrid cascode amplifier and was not the standard 50 ohm impedance termination. My early filter designs suffered severe insertion loss or poor selectivity. I asked Wes, W7ZOI, for some instruction on solving my filter problems. I learned that this filter topology is referred to as a singly terminated, double tuned band pass filter. Wes designed the front end band pass filter for the 5 MHz receiver for us all to learn from and for this I am very grateful to him.
Above. A GPLA simulation of the singly terminated, double tuned filter designed by W7ZOI. A double tuned circuit is mandatory ahead of the WWV receiver as local BCB and other RF energy will be amplified by the first RF amp and may distort the WWV signal in the crystal filter or even might blow-by the crystal filter and be detected and heard in the speaker.
Directly above is a close up photograph of the input filter bread board. Filter tuning was done by ear (and screwdriver!) Simply tune the trimmer capacitors for the loudest audible WWV pulses in the speaker and you are set. If you can't locate a 20K gate resistor for Q2, a 22K resistor will work okay.
Crystal Filter and Second RF Amplifier Stage
In the schematic to the right is the crystal filter and second RF amplifier. The
input impedance of the crystal filter is established by the 1K shunt resistor
across the output transformer on Q1. The output impedance of the crystal filter is set
by the 1K gate resistor of Q4. A filter input/output Z of 1000 ohms gave the best overall shape
and bandwidth during my testing.
Developing this filter was difficult. My first batch of junk box crystals had a low motional inductance and with the filter I built I could hear stations ~400 KHz below and/or above the filter center frequency in addition to WWV. After giving up in frustration for nearly 2 months, a batch of 10 crystals were ordered from Digi-Key. These were microprocessor crystals; ones with 18 pF load capacitance in a HC49/U holder. The new filter was tweaked and tested and now provides single signal reception of WWV. Your own results may vary according to your crystal parameters. The Digi-Key part number is provided for reference purposes only.
To the left is a close up photograph of the 5 MHz crystal filter. The crystals were turned upside down and the outer cases were directly soldered to the copper ground plane as you can easily see in the crystal to the left of the others. The rest of the crystals as well as one of the 47 pF tuning capacitors were soldered on the other side and solder points are hidden from view. The crystals were positioned to keep the output of Q1 away from the input of Q4. Stage lay out is very important in TRF receivers. I found stage layout to be far more important than keeping lead lengths short from my experimentation.
Directly above is the GPLA simulation of my crystal filter. The 5 MHz point is not centered exactly in the middle of the pass band, but a reasonable AM filter was built nonetheless. Crystal parameters, especially motional inductance and capacitance can make or break your filter. Motional inductance and capacitance describe the L and C values that make up the crystal's electrical LC model. Very large inductive and capacitive reactance values at the specified operating frequency give the crystal its extraordinarily high "quality factor" or "Q". For example, If the motional L is too low, your filter may not work as expected; providing single signal reception of WWV. The Lm was 0.02 and the Cp was 5 in the crystals which I used for my filter. In general, low Q crystals will give poor results. Oppositely, crystals with very high Q may give a lower then expected bandwidth and this may reduce AM receive fidelity. Experimentation is necessary.
Third RF Amplifier Stage and Detector
To the left is schematic of the final RF stage and the envelope detector. This RF stage has variable gain by means of a front-panel mounted 10K potentiometer which is used to vary the bias on Q5. The input Z of this stage is 100 K and is set by the Q6 gate resistor. The output of Q5 is AC coupled to a detector designed by Wes, W7ZOI. I performed
considerable experimentation with basic diode detectors as well as detector source followers;
some of which I sent to Wes
for his consideration. He designed and emailed me back this simple, good sounding detector
design which uses the gate voltage of Q7 to bias the germanium diode. Other types of diodes such as
as hot carrier diodes will likely not have the output voltage of the Germanium type. Germanium diodes, when biased, had more noise and high frequency response in addition to
higher output when compared to others I tried during my experiments.
Diode detector guru, Felix, VK4FUQ advised me of an excellent diode he is now using called the BAT46. The audio samples of a local AM radio station using this diode and his other hi-fi lab equipment that he sent me are beyond fantastic.
The photograph on the right is a close up of the enveloped detector designed by W7ZOI. The germanium diode was purchased from The Source in Canada (Radio Shack in the USA). The blue, partially hidden shunt capacitor is a multi-layer ceramic 560 pF cap. The other capacitors are metalized, polyester film types. Ensure correct diode polarity.
To the left is the schematic of the audio stage. The very "popcorn" LM386 AF chip is used to please the audience who complained about my AF stages not having enough popcorn factor. A 4K7 resistor was inserted between pins 1 and 8 to reduce the gain somewhat. Thus, the LM386 is still being operated in the high gain mode but won't hurt your ears with loud noise and distortion. The 470 pF cap on pin 3 may be changed or eliminated. It is a simple low pass filter.
A secondary, audio output connects to a front panel mounted RCA phono jack. This allows me to use my lab grade (KK7B AF amp) and turn the audio off on the normal receiver AF amp.
The photograph to the right is a close up of the LM386-based audio stage. This
is where I started. After drilling the chassis, wiring the speaker, installing the chassis
potentiometers, making the main power buss and LED indicator, the AF stage was
built on the main board. The main board was then temporarily soldered in and tested. (Some connections were
made via alligator clips such as the speaker wires). When the AF amp worked as
expected, the main board was removed from the receiver chassis and the net stage
was built. Up next were the detector and source follower. After bread boarding
these, again the main board was laid in the chassis,
tested and then removed when all was functioning well. To test the detector I touched my finger to the input and heard local BCB radio. Following this,
RF Amp #3 was added to the main board and again the main board was temporarily
wired up and tested by
touching the input of Q6 with my finger and observing that a local broadcast radio
station increased/decreased in amplitude when the RF gain control was turned up
and down. DC voltages were also measured and considered from project start to
Actually, all you need to do is connect a band pass filter such as this to Q6 and the components after and you will have a nice TRF BCB AM radio. Each successive stage was built and tested, so when the receiver was finished, I already knew that it worked. I cannot emphasize enough how important it is to build your receiver backwards and test each stage as you go. There is strong temptation to start at the antenna connection and work until you get to the speaker, but please consider doing the opposite.
The bare copper wire in the photograph is the positive connection point for the speaker wire. It was trimmed somewhat during final assembly to reduce the possibility of it shorting.
The photograph above shows some of the detail of the receiver main board from the right hand side which contains the detector, source follower and audio amp stages from right to left.
The photograph above shows a top view of the main chassis and also the chassis cover with the speaker bolted on and wired up.
This wider angle photograph shows the main board from the left side. From left to right in the nearground are the SO-239 antenna connector, LC band pass filter and first RF amplifier.
The photograph above shows the speaker attached to the Hammond chassis top. Holes were drilled in the chassis lid with a drill press to allow the sound to pass through.
The photograph above shows the reverse view of the receiver chassis.