Time Domain Output from a Diode Ring Mixer
22 Dec 2009, w7zoi
Figure 1. Some available experimental modules.
Some folks wonder about the output that they should see on their oscilloscope when looking at the output from a diode ring mixer. There is no set, pat answer. The output
can change dramatically as levels, frequencies, and even terminations are changed. This complication is illustrated here with a few screen shots, taken with a Rigol DS1052E 50 MHz bandwidth digital storage oscilloscope. The experiments started with the following pile of modules. Your collection will probably differ.
Figure 2. The inside of the module containing a Mini-Circuits SBL-1 diode ring mixer. This is a standard part that is essentially generic.
The first experiment was to set up a pair of 10 MHz signal sources. One was from a homebrew generator, shown below.
Figure 3. The 10 MHz signal from a homebrew signal source. The 1.54 volt peak to peak signal is applied to a 50 Ohm terminator at the oscilloscope. The delivered power is then +7.7 dBm.
This signal was filtered with a 14 MHz low pass circuit. This caused the amplitude to drop by 0.2 dB. The source was then attached to the LO (local oscillator) port of the SBL-1 mixer.
Figure 4. The IF output from the mixer when there is nothing attached to the RF port. Note the scope sensitivity of 2 mV/div.
Next, we attached a 50 Ohm terminator to the R mixer port.
Figure 5. The IF output with LO drive, but without an R signal. But the R port is now terminated. This waveform, when compared with Fig 4, shows just how sensitive the mixer can be to termination.
In the next experiment, a -20 dBm signal was applied to the R port. The frequency was very close to the 10 MHz LO that is still present.
Fig 6. There are two dominant signals from the mixer. One is a low frequency at 100 kHz. But this is accompanied by a high frequency of about 20 MHz. These two outputs, a sum and difference frequency, are expected from any mixer.
A filter can isolate the two dominant outputs. This is shown below where a 500 kHz low pass filter is inserted in the line between the mixer and the oscilloscope. A 6 dB pad is between the mixer and the filter, for direct insertion would upset the termination of the mixer.
Figure 7. The output of about 100 kHz after a low pass filter is inserted in the mixer output.
The next experiments emulate a SSB transmitter. We start with a signal at 11.06 MHz with strength -20 dBm. (This is a common IF used in homebrew SSB transceivers such as the BITX-20.) This is applied to the mixer R port. The L port is driven with a +7 dBm signal at 3.19 MHz. The LO signal is low pass filtered to attenuate harmonics, a measure that is probably not necessary, but the filters were there. The IF output is shown below.
Figure 8. Time domain output of a SBL-1 set up as the “transmit” mixer in a SSB rig. This is far from the “perfect sine wave” that some folks tell us we should observe. This waveform contains many different frequency components. The counter output should not be interpreted to have any meaning. (I should have turned it off.)
The signal of Fig 8 can also be viewed with a spectrum analyzer. This is shown below. This measurement was taken with the August 1998 QST Spectrum Analyzer and not the FFT routine in the DSO. The Rigol scope has a nice display for an analyzer.
Figure 9. Spectrum of the signal shown in Fig 8. The largest signal on screen is that at the left, which is the spectrum analyzer zero spur. This is a spurious output that is typical of most SA systems. The desired signal at 11.06+3.19=14.25 MHz is just to the right of center. But the image is also present at the different frequency of 7.87 MHz at about 3 major divisions from the left edge.
Alas, I didn’t find a 14 MHz bandpass filter in the junk box. Such a filter would have allowed selection of the dominant 14 MHz component while attenuating all the rest of the junk shown. The many other signals are the result of harmonic mixing. That is, we observe IF outputs at N x FLO +/- M x FRF where N and M are integers. Some of these spurious outputs can be quite strong with diode ring mixers. They are best avoided with high frequency LO signals. In this case, a LO at 14.25+11.06=25.31 MHz would produce a much cleaner output spectrum. It is much easier to obtain LO stability with an oscillator built at 3.19 MHz.
It is not reasonable to have a well defined, predictable time domain (i.e., normal oscilloscope) output from a mixer. The exact results depend upon too many variables. A spectrum analyzer can be used to garner much more information.