440 Hertz Peaked Low Pass Audio Filter Experiments
At audio frequencies, low pass filtering can go a long way to improving CW and beacon reception. It has a been a long time since I built one and therefore decided to experiment with some designs using the 5532 op amp. EMRFD has a great section on RC active audio filters starting at Chapter 3.5 and this is where I began. After some experimentation, I remembered a peaked low pass filter designed and published by Wes, W7ZOI in the 1970's. This filter became very popular in Russia after publication in a 1971 Russian Amateur Radio Journal. I asked Wes if he might design another low pass filter peaked for 440 Hertz, which is my favorite CW beat note frequency. This filter is intended for use as an out board headphone jack device for the Icom R75 or other receiver.
Base Project Schematic
Above is the filter designed by Wes, W7ZOI. It has two 1K pots you can tweak; a subtle frequency control and a Q adjustment. It is theoretically possible to adjust the Q too strongly as to cause oscillation, although this did not happen with my bread board.
Schematic and Circuit Building Details
Above is the final filter design. My prototype filter had 2 variable pots and
I disconnected and measured them after discovering my favorite setting and then
constructed the version shown above using fixed-value resistors instead of the
potentiometers. If you like to tweak knobs, you might leave 1 or both of the
pots in. The
0.68 uF cap can be raised as high as 4.7 uF if you have poly caps this large in
capacitance value. although, it seems wasteful, I did not use one half of the
second 5532 op amp. Feel free to add another pole of low pass filtering or
something else to
utilize this stage if you like. Pin 3 of the unused, second op amp 1/2 is
connected to the 10K/10K voltage divider bias with a wire as indicated in the
This filter sounds the best when the R75 volume control is minimally turned on as I suspect some of the wide band noise heard is from the ICOM AF chain. More importantly, If the R75 audio gain control is turned too high, the filter will be overdriven and sound distorted This is especially true when using the 2.4 KHz wide SSB filter on the R75. The 10 ohm filter input resistor attenuates the receiver output and makes it more difficult to overdrive the audio filter. The 500 Hz filter at the 9 MHz Receiver IF has quite a bit of of loss and with this filter switched in, it is difficult to overdrive the audio filter. For best results, an audio filter should be placed just after the first AF preamp stage, however, using the headphone jack is the only option available for adding AF filtering in most commercial receivers I have used.
The second op amp stage is used to increase the headphone volume and the 47K feedback resistor can be adjusted to suit your needs. It is really important to experiment with the component values which will match your receiver and the IF filters and antenna you have. For example the input shunt resistor may be increased from 10 to 18-22 ohms if you always use a narrow IF filter during CW and beacon listening or received signals are low in volume. This is an experimenter's circuit, not a finished project. Overall, this circuit has low output volume and is really gentle on the ears in terms of noise and amplitude.
Project Breadboard and Samples
Shown to the right is a side photo of the experimental project. The big yellow Mallory
polyester caps were used as I did not have any other desirable AF filtering caps in my
parts stock. The day after, I built this filter, my parts order (including a big
selection of polyester film audio caps) from Digi-Key arrived, however
this is Murphy's law. These Mallorys are good quality capacitors- just a little large!
Low pass filters can really help reduce noise during reception. Two example audio files follow. These were heard in the NDB band using a 2.4 KHz SSB IF filter.
The occasional scratchy noises are me moving as I held the headphones around the microphone.
Above is the filter photographed from above. The 3 blue LEDs are used to light
the lower row of buttons on the R75 as it is difficult to see them with a low
level of light in the radio shack. No hum is heard with this filter. When you
build AF amps or filters with the 5532, after soldering pin 4 to the copper
ground plane, start out by connecting the components associated with pins 6 and
7 and then 1 and 2. I suggest this as placing components between adjacent pins
is often the most difficult part of building when
using ugly construction with op amps.
If by accident you make an unintentional solder bridge between 2 adjacent pins on an op amp, simply heat the 2 bridged pins up and gently drive a small screw driver between the pins. This should remove your unwanted solder bridge. The 5532 op amp is quiet and relatively inexpensive. In EMRFD, there are countless examples of how one can use them in a variety of applications.
Additional Information and Photographs
Above is a photo of the audio filter in action on the NDB band. The blue LED reflection can be seen on the receiver. For serious NDB and CW pile up work, narrow band pass audio filters are generally required. This simple audio filter experiment might be useful as a spring board for your own AF filter experiments and to learn the filter requirements of your own particular receiver.
Above is the filter photographed from the rear. The DC power cord has a built in RFI filter. For homebuilt projects, DC power cords can be obtain by cutting the power cord off old unwanted or broken "wall wart" power supplies. This provides you with a nice cord with a built-in plug. I collect old AC "wall wart" transformers for this purpose. This filter is powered by the main 12 volt DC supply on my radio bench.