Low Noise Crystal Oscillators
Some experiments were conducted to build a low noise crystal oscillator with 50 ohm output at 7 and 14 MHz for the test bench.
Some readers might wonder why build such an oscillator? Although a variable RF signal generator is an important bench tool, it is also nice to have a fixed frequency signal source on your favorite HAM band. This RF source can be connected to other 50 ohm modules such as band-pass filters, diode ring mixers or feedback amplifiers to conduct experiments at a whim. The project goal was a low noise oscillator with 2 outputs so it could drive a divide by 2 flip-flop for 40 meter band digital mixer work, or fundamental frequency use on the 20 and 40 meter bands.
Presented are some experiments carried out to realize this goal. Only some of the better experiments and circuits are shown. An additional circuit was added Jan 31, 2010.
The 7.040 MHz crystal used is an AT cut, HC6-U holder part made locally by West Crystal. I reviewed the information concerning crystal oscillators in Chapter 4.5 of EMRFD and then started melting solder. The oscillator output was extracted as described in EMRFD Figure 4.24. The output is low distortion, low impedance and low gain. Like in most experiments, I built it, measured the DC voltages and then looked at the AC voltages in the oscilloscope.
In order to measure the output, a 51 ohm load was transformer coupled as shown in Figure 1a. I am uncertain if this was a good method for power measurement, however, it allowed comparison of the experimental circuits. As shown, the output with a 9 volt regulated power supply is low; -1.7 dBm. Still, a circuit like EMRFD Figure 4.24 can be used with a variety of crystal frequencies and has great utility.
Figure 2 shows two output waveforms taken from my crystal oscillator. When a signal is taken from the emitter of the main oscillator transistor (what we typically do) harmonic distortion occurs as shown in the above left. Actually, the distorted waveform photo above left looks better than most do. Typically, they look like this. Many builders will just place a low pass filter on such an oscillator's output and be very satisfied with the harmonic content in their signal. Certainly this is a good, common and practical way to go. However, for some builders, the experimenter's journey is what counts. That is, the fun and learning occurs during designing/building/testing and not just operating home built gear.
When the output is taken from between the shunt capacitor and the crystal per Figure 1A, a much cleaner sine wave is available. The photo above right tells this story. The focus of all of the experiments on this web page is boosting this lower distortion, lower phase noise signal into something useful. To increase the base oscillator output voltage, the VCC was raised to 12 VDC and the BJT emitter circuit was tuned per Figure 1C. Resident on my work bench are a few potentiometers and a 10-254 pF air variable capacitor with short attached leads. These parts are inserted into test circuits to allow tweaking of R or C as desired. Once the desired tweaking is performed, the potentiometer or variable capacitor is removed and measured. The closest fixed value R or C is then substituted as appropriate. In this experiment, the highest output voltage occurred when the variable capacitor measured 181.7 pF. Thus in my version, 33 pF and 150 pF capacitors were placed in parallel and are shown later in Figure 3.
The Figure 1A output transformer circuit was again used and the power output was 6.8 dBm. Being tuned to 1 crystal frequency is the biggest drawback of the 1C circuit. Tuning a crystal oscillator as described earlier is easy to do however.
The next task was to design and build a buffer/amplifier. To match the low impedance of the Figure 1C crystal oscillator, a common base amp was built. The circuit was morphed over time, however, the initial design is shown as Figure 1B. It was interesting to note that a series resistor (RX) is required to keep the waveform pure. Any RX value less than 470 ohms compromised the sine wave purity. The 560 ohm R shown was perfect, however, as expected, attenuated the oscillator signal. In order to get a decent output voltage, the common base amp had to be run at 5 mA or greater current and ultimately collector tuning was added to try and realize an output voltage greater than 4 dBm.
Through experimentation I learned that adjusting Fig 1B's tuning, emitter current and RX value all could distort the output of the main oscillator at certain values or settings. Running high current also invites parasitic oscillations and soon it was realized that common base was perhaps not the best choice (at least for me) as another separate amplifier stage would be required to get a decent output voltage with or without an attenuator pad.. After trying a number of different buffer-amplifiers including a 50 ohm feedback amp, I chose a favorite circuit which I know has excellent gain plus back to front isolation and would not distort the oscillator waveform; a lightly coupled JFET amp.
7 MHz Circuit
In Figure 3 is the complete schematic of the 7 MHz portion of the low distortion crystal oscillator. The output was 0.52 dBm. A 6 dB 50 ohm pad ensures a well-buffered 50 ohm termination. This aids in calculating gain or loss in circuits it drives. You could easily decrease this to a -3 or -4 dB pad. This reflects the wisdom handed down by our mentors who encourage building RF stages in 50 ohm impedance blocks. A Q2 source bypass capacitor was not placed as it increased harmonic distortion in the output signal. The output is filtered with a simple pi filter. The 100 pF coupling capacitor connect this circuit to Figure 6; the 14 MHz circuit.
L2 was wound and measured. It is desirable (but not absolutely necessary) to perform measurement on powdered iron toroids to compensate for variations in wire spacing and toroid permeability. I used a T44-6 core; use whatever appropriate powdered iron toroid you want.
A GPLA analysis of the Pi low-pass filter is shown in Figure 4. The basic circuit was designed with PI Filter Designer on this page and tweaked in GPLA. You may wish to omit this filter or perhaps, design a better one yourself.
The 7 MHz output waveform on the Tektronix (left) and the Rigol oscilloscopes. On the Tek scope, the output power was 0.50 dBm and on the Rigol scope it was 0.52 dBm. The Rigol is an amazing oscilloscope, but only has 256 horizontal lines of resolution, therefore cannot replicate the stellar and beautiful waveform tracings of the ancient Tek scope. In reality, probably, no other modern scope can. I have received many positive comments about the old Tektronix oscilloscope waveforms. It is important to mention, that Rigol waveform viewing is not bad, just very different. The visual display is incredibly accurate and its triggering options, bandwidth, sampling rate and waveform display tools are fantastic. фантастический !
During these experiments, the 40 year old (plus) Tektronix scope was distorting frequencies greater than 10 MHz and breaking into oscillations. After 3 major repairs in 2009, the scope replaced with a Rigol DS1052E. Signal viewing will certainly different; that is for sure. The decision to move from a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) to a digital storage scope (DSO) was not taken lightly.
DSO versus CRO - some comments from the workbench
Choosing a CRO versus a DSO is an
individualized process. It is your decision alone. Questions to ask yourself may include: What are
needs? What is my budget? Do I have weight and/or space constraints?
Carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Proponents of CROs state that these scopes cannot generate artifacts, nor distort the signal. This of course is true as long as the scope bandwidth is adequate. Further, some people feel that aliasing or artifact generated in DSOs due to undersampling (taking too few samples of a waveform) is unacceptable. They may even feel that DSOs are not precision measurement instruments as a result. Limited horizontal screen resolution in DSOs is also a bugaboo for some experimenters and provides further evidence of DSO inferiority in the minds of these folks. These concerns are indeed valid; however, black and white thinking is a little out of fashion in a world more containing shades-of-gray.
The DSO takes a series of samples and stores them in memory. When sufficient samples are present, they are assembled and displayed. The sampling rate of a DSO is variable and depends on the time base setting used. Modern DSOs, like the Rigol, Tektronix Oscilloscopes and Agilent Oscilloscopes have better sampling rates and larger memories than their predecessors and hence aliasing is less of a problem than before; although in some measurement situations, undersampling can occur. One must always well consider and interpret whatever you are measuring and if you use a DSO, always keep undersampling in mind. When first using a DSO, you are on the bottom of a learning curve, however, with attentiveness and practice, one can learn to look for and possibly mitigate undersampling should it occur. In certain cases, a CRO will be superior to a DSO. In my discussions with others about Rigol signal viewing , only 1 significant "aliasing" problem has been noted by a builder when he tested a balanced modulator. The display did not give the expected result (was not filled in as expected) and a CRO was pulled out and the problem was verified. The builder knew there was a problem and could understand why it occurred. This builder also wrote that this was not so much a problem, as a reality of using a DSO.
Some techniques I have gleaned from the Internet about detecting aliasing may include the following:
- Vary the time base over several ranges. Events occurring near the time base should be reproducible and if they are not, undersampling might be occurring.
- As possible, use a single sweep and dot display. The 'dots' will indicate just where the scope took each sample. If the dots are far apart relative to the waveform timing, aliasing is a possibility.
Some techniques to minimize aliasing:
- Choose linear interpolation when using math functions.
- Use bandwidth limiting in low level measurements (The Rigol seems to automatically use B/W limiting in these situations).
- Use trace averaging for low level measurements as possible.
The Rigol weighs 50 times less than my old scope and fits on a small shelf in my small workspace. As a hobbyist, it meets my needs and budget plus has some very cool features. Undersampling is considered and in some cases, such as low level measurement, an analog scope might be a better choice. Happily, a CRO is available to me if I really stress out over it. Signal viewing was taken for granted with my old scope. In some ways, this DSO has prompted me to dig deeper; to become more vigilant and thoughtful about signal measurement and display. If you have a spectrum analyzer, and use a DSO for signal viewing, the ability to perform slow sweeps while maintaining a perfect display is quite enjoyable. Again, please decide the CRO versus DSO issue for yourself (or maybe get a hybrid). The DSO is not a perfect solution to every signal viewing situation, but their constraints are quite livable considering their numerous modern features.
DSO's: “They are not your father’s oscilloscope”; that is certain!
The Figure 3 breadboard. AWG 24 to 26 gauge wire was used in the various inductors and transformers to better secure or anchor these parts.
14 MHz Circuit
Figure 6 is the final schematic for the 14 MHz circuit as developed on the workbench. Your design might look very different than mine. In the first version of this circuit, there were only 2 JFET amplifiers and the resultant output voltage was too low (even without a 50 ohm attenuation pad). To compensate, I ran the source current of the JFETs above 15 mA, placed a source bypass capacitor on Q4 and also used a 1000 pF capacitor to couple the input to Figure 2. Some fairly bad harmonic distortion was measured at the output and it seemed crazy to run so much current. Therefore it was decided to run a third JFET amplifier and use only modest current in the trio of JFET amplifiers.
CV tunes very sharply and required some care when peaking the output voltage.
Figure 7 is a screen capture of the 14 MHz circuit output measured using a sensitive 50 ohm terminated oscilloscope. This was with no low-pass filtering. The output is distorted. Presumably this happened in the diode frequency doubler. This is not a low-distortion oscillator.
A N = 7 Chebyshev low-pass filter was inserted in Figure 6 at point LP. I checked with a spectrum analyzer and the 2nd harmonic was down 38 dB. There were no other measurable harmonics after that.
Figure 7b is a screen capture of the 14 MHz circuit output after the low-pass filter and final attenuator pad. Vpp on this graphic = peak to peak voltage = 1.13 volts. The output power is 5.04 dBm, or 3.19 mW . The Q4 and Q5 source resistors and the output attenuator pads are 2 areas of the circuit where you might easily change the output power. In the end, the circuit labeled Figure 6 was chosen. Your output voltage will probably vary, but can be easily adjusted as described.
Figure 8 are Rigol digital screen captures. Figure 8A is a measurement taken from the anode at point DX from Figure 6. Figure 8B is a measurement taken at the cathode of DX and shows distortion caused by the diodes, reduced AC voltage and of course, frequency doubling.
The 7 and 14 MHz circuits bread boarded and mounted in a chassis. The 7.039 MHz and 14.079 MHz outputs are connected to BNC jacks via RG-174 cable. The 15.3 MHz Chebyshev low-pass filter and -4 dB attenuator pads are on a raised Ugly Construction board. Some VCC decoupling parts are also on the bottom RF board.
The 7 and14 MHz crystal oscillator board mounted in a project chassis along with a 1 KHz low noise oscillator This photo was a prototype version that did not have a Chebyshev low-pass filter after the 14 MHz stage.
Front view of the .001, 7 & 14 MHz oscillator. It is really fun to build your own test equipment.
Transformer Notes and Conclusion
A photo of T5 from Figure 6. Some builders have emailed and stated they do not like to wind inductors/ transformers. I always ask them why? Often these builders were concerned with little details such as wire gauge and spacing, choosing the core size and which magnetic material to use. The Radio Amateur literature is replete with great tutorials on winding coils using toroids. Truly; the more toroids you wind, the easier it gets. Here are some simple points for beginners:
- Powdered iron toroids are generally for tuned circuits. I.e. A capacitor and the inductor are tuned to a center frequency. Powdered irons containing the #2 and #6 material tend to tune sharply and have fairly high Q
- Ferrites toroids are generally for use in broadband or wideband (untuned) applications. #43 material is relatively low Q and lossy as compared to the number #2 and #6 powdered iron toroids
- Wind your inductors with enamel coated magnet wire. Popular gauges include 28, 26 and 24, but this is quite variable.
Minimally, you could get by with just #43 ferrite and #6 powdered iron toroids. For example, FT37-43 ferrites and T50-6 plus T68-6 powdered iron toroids could build a lot of inductors/transformers. In the photo above, I used #24 AWG wire for the 18 turns and #22 AWG wire for the 3-turn link. The 3 turn link is grounded on one end and well anchors the transformer. Thicker wire was chosen because Ugly Construction was used and the part is really anchored with the #22 AWG wire.
It took quite a lot of experimentation to reach the project goal. The experience was pleasant and comparing the old and new oscilloscopes was an added bonus. Perhaps, the circuits are overly complicated, however, they are critical signal generators for my workbench. Well designed signal generators have extensive RF-proof shielding to allow serious attenuation. These will have to do.
Addition - Jan 31, 2010 5 MHz JFET Low Noise Oscillator
Another experimental low noise oscillator was built for 5 MHz. The desired output power was -5 dBm. The schematic and peak-peak output voltages and powers are shown in Figure 9. The 68 pF capacitor in series with the crystal was found experimentally by using a variable capacitor and measuring the output voltage and observing the scope waveform. When these appeared to be optimal, the trimmer capacitor was removed and measured at 67.17 pF. This circuit can easily be adjusted to give higher output power such as 7 dBm. To increase power, you may consider increasing the VCC to 12 volts, add a 0.1 uF source bypass capacitor in parallel with the 270 Ohm resistor of Q2 and/or adjust the pad attenuation. There are other circuit alterations to increase power, but the aforementioned are a good start.
It is important to measure your output voltages with a 50 ohm load connected to the device. Standard value resistors were used which throw off the value somewhat, but the actual attenuation of the pad is very close to the 6 dB attenuation expected. The math can be done with software such as Applets H and I on the QRP tools web page.
The breadboard of Figure 9 is shown above. The - 5 dBm output was required for some upcoming experiments and to study log and power measurements. The black BNC appliance is a 50 ohm load. These are very handy, but not a necessity. In most cases, a simple 51 ohm resistor to ground is the load.
A screen capture from Figure 9 signal viewing maneuvers.
The output waveform looks good - even on a DSO!
The output of the Figure 9 oscillator was further attenuated -19 dB for analysis in a spectrum analyzer. The -19 dB was chosen as this 50 ohm pad uses near standard resistor values and would well ensure a very safe signal level for the spectrum analyzer. The pad is shown in the Figure 14 schematic. The second harmonic (2F) is down about 20 dB from the fundamental. Each horizontal division is 5 MHz and each vertical division is 10 dB. Compared to other more conventional oscillators that were checked in the spectrum analyzer, this oscillator has low harmonic content.
A N=5 or 5 element Chebyshev low-pass filter was placed after the Figure 9 oscillator and connected to the spectrum analyzer to see what happens. The 3 dB down frequency of this low-pass filter was 6.53 MHz. The second harmonic is now ~42 dB down. There are no measureable harmonics after 2F. It is really cool to "see" what a filter does to a signal.
The schematic of the -19 dB attenuator pad and the low-pass filter is shown. To measure the output, the 10X probe was disconnected. The circuit was connected to the oscilloscope via 50 ohm coaxial cable and the scope input was terminated with 2 paralleled 100 ohm resistors. The 50 ohm scope termination technique will be discussed in a future web page addition. The RMS voltage values were inputted into Applet J on the QRP Tools page to calculate the output power. The RMS output was 0.131 volts which calculated to an output power of -24.6 dBm.