Double Tuned Receiver Band-pass Filter Design Center
This web page is for builders who own EMRFD. Assisted by 4 of the Ladpac programs from the EMRFD compact disk, and the information presented in EMRFD Chapter 3, I share some experiments building popcorn receiver band-pass filters. Prior to diving into this material, please read the help file Ladpac2008 Manual.pdf and a file on the EMRFD compact disk called The Double Tuned Circuit: An Experimenter's tutorial by Wes, W7ZOI.
Derived from experiments, my web content reflects the efforts of a lay-person, hobby-level designer — I make mistakes. I say this not to make excuses or avoid accountability, but to share the truth. My hope is that my experiments inform yours and we all improve over time. I correct reported mistakes and rely on your eyes to see them.
Arduous and requiring good math skills, filter design is out of reach for many builders. Software changes this and learning to apply computer programs in real-world situations is part of our hobby. This web page shares some bench experiences, plus my thoughts about using some programs written by Wes, W7ZOI. I present suggestions and examples based more on empiricism and from reading about band-pass filter design than scientific methodology.
From email regarding my VFO and RF Workbench pages, I have become aware that I've lead many builders to think that a perfect sine wave and a high return loss are "must have" bench outcomes. This is false. A clean sine wave proves useful for accurate measurement, but is not a de rigueur bench outcome. A desire for high return loss reflects my own personal obsession; in simple QRP rigs, this may represent folly. Please don't overestimate the importance of return loss from my bias; decide for yourself.
Part 1: Experiments with 2 coupled L-C tanks.
Goal: A 15 Meter band band-pass filter with an insertion loss < 4 dB and a return loss of >= 20 dB.
Software: Ladbuild08 and GPLA08.
The simplest band-pass filter is an L-C tank. To get a decent stop band we generally couple 2 or 3 tanks together with series capacitor(s). Other filter topologies were ignored. In Part 1, I just connected up a couple of tanks on the bench without the use of software. Some attempts at impedance matching via transformer links were also trialed.
Above — I built a 5 component filter for the base experiment. Inductors = 7 turns of #22 AWG on a T68-6; tapped at 2 turns from ground. The inductors turns were expanded or compressed until L= 300 nH. Tuning capacitors = large 15 to 300 pF air variable capacitors. Coupling capacitors trialed = 2 pF, 3.3 pF, 5 pF, and 7.5 pF.
After soldering in a coupling capacitor, each tank (also called resonator) was tuned to resonance by looking at the peak-peak output voltage in a 50 ohm terminated oscilloscope. After tuning, I measured insertion and return loss and then swept each filter with a tracking generator + spectrum analyzer. On the bench I determined that the greatest return loss occurred with 2 transformer taps from ground; the result — a dismal 10-12 dB.
What effect does changing the coupling capacitor have?
Above — A spectrum analyzer + tracking generator sweep of the filter response with a 2 pF coupling capacitor between the inductors. Graticules = 2 MHz per horizontal division and 10 dB per vertical division. Click on this zoom to better see the - 3 dB bandwidth. The sweep revealed a sharp peak response with steep skirts and a 3 dB down BW of ~220 KHz or so. Some of the noise arose from the big air variable caps connected to each tank with short hook up wires, plus no shielding.
Above — The SA + TG sweep with a 3.3 pF coupling capacitor. The peak isn't as sharp, but still looks good. As shown, increasing the coupling capacitor value increases the 3 dB filter bandwidth with all other components equal.
Above — With a 5 pF coupling capacitor, a double humped response appeared. The bandwidth further increases.
Above — A zoom of the double humped filter response employing a 7.5 pF coupling capacitor. Imagine the difficulty tuning this band-pass filter in a receiver by listening to band noise. Tuning in either peak skews the filter bandwidth. Additionally, the 3dB bandwidth now = ~ 1.6 MHz — Not a good filter!
Optimizing Return Loss
Despite trying, I could not obtain a better return loss than 10 -12 dB by changing the tap point on the 7 turn inductors. In part this was due to limited potential autotransformer ratios on a 7 turn coil. I emailed Wes, W7ZOI and he sent this file. I learned that adding a series capacitor to each end will tune the filter to 50 ohms impedance. What capacitor value should we use?
The answer can be found purely experimentally, or with Ladbuild08 to make a digital file of your filter and GPLA08 to analyze it.
Above — I "built up" my Figure 1 filter in Ladbuild08 with a 3.3 pF coupling capacitor. Initially I guessed at the values for the series end capacitors and knew my tuning capacitor were ~ 165 pF because I removed and measured them from the peaked filter from Figure 1 and added a few pF for stray capacitance. Any of these values can be changed in GPLA, so educated guessing is okay.
For size 50 to 68 toroidal inductors, many builders choose a Qu value from 200 -
250 with # 6 material. Qu affects insertion
loss and to some extent, return loss.
Click for a
tutorial from Wes', W7ZOI site and consult EMRFD for more information.
In order for GPLA08 to display an S11 plot (return loss), a return loss bridge (RLB) must be added as shown. Also check the Plot S11 check box in GPLA08.
Above — The GPLA 08 filter simulation of the filter "built" with Ladbuild08 above.
Above — In this filter simulation, I tweaked the end capacitors (parts #1 and #7) from 22 to 23 pF and watched the return loss (S11) improve by 7.34 dB — if wanted, you can optimize the end capacitor values to improve the match into 50 ohms. To re-establish the center frequency, slight retuning of parallel capacitors #3 and 6 is required when changing the series end capacitors; although I specifically didn't change them for this example.
Increasing the 2 end capacitors to increase S11 renders an option only; you don't have to go for the best S11 in your filters. Increasing the series end capacitors to bump up return loss tends to increase the 3 dB bandwidth and reduce insertion loss.
Above — I built and measured the filter with 22 pF end capacitors since these are common, standard values. In another experiment, a 1 pF cap was soldered in parallel with each series capacitor and the return loss increased by about 4 dB. Click for a bench photo of an alternate version of the above filter. Clearly, GPLA08 simulation furnishes us popcorn builders with a starting point to make top-notch band-pass filters.
Click for another simulation of a filter employing a 2 pF coupling capacitor, with the end capacitors tweaked for the best S11. S-11 is just the negative of the return loss. I would certainly use this filter in the front end of a popcorn direct conversion receiver.
An easier way to design your band-pass filters involves using DTC08 to design a raw filter and GPLA08 to substitute in standard value capacitors and tweak your filter. That's part 2. The material presented in this section supports the discussion in Part 2 and 3.
Part 2: Band-pass Filter Design using DTC08
Prior to using these Ladpac programs, some numbered design points and a preamble follow.
More than anything else, our parts collection dictates what filter parameters we choose and end up with. For example, if you want filters with a low bandwidth such as 150 KHz and under, you'll require inductors and capacitors that provide really high Q, or you might suffer from punishing insertion loss.
The following are general starting points only — your needs, parts and abilities drive your filter design. Example variances include: if a low noise amplifier follows a filter, a higher insertion loss might be okay; a high return loss is not always required for a low noise figure; especially in popcorn receivers. Also, it's a viable choice to trade off insertion loss for steep skirts in some filters.
1. A reasonable 3 dB bandwidth = 100 to 500 KHz, but this depends on the
purpose of the filter.
Numerous considerations challenge us. Will this be a whole band (CW + SSB) filter, or a CW only filter? As a CW op who uses simple equipment, I tend to design moderate bandwidth (200-300 KHz) CW-only filters. If you need CW + SSB, then a bandwidth of 350 KHz or greater might suit you. It's really up to you.
Other factors affecting bandwidth choice include whether the filter drives a superheterodyne or a direct conversion receiver. In superheterodyne receivers, your intermediate frequency informs your filter bandwidth choice. Consider the following 2 diagrams:
Above — Using DTC08 and GPLA08, I designed an example filter for the front end of a 14 MHz superheterodyne receiver with an 11 MHz IF. BW = 242 KHz. CF = 14.060 MHz; a frequency some QRP operators favor.
Above — Assessing filter attenuation at the image frequency using GPLA08. To keep the arithmetic simple, I employed a frequency of 14 MHz for the image frequency calculation. As shown, the simulated attenuation of my 8 MHz image frequency is 88.42 dB. Since I personally target an image frequency suppression of 60-70 dB; at 88 dB, if I wanted, I could increase the bandwidth of this filter for broader coverage and reduced insertion loss.
How much image frequency rejection is needed for superheterodyne receivers? I'm uncertain, for I have seen competent authors choose between 50 and 100 dB. I feel a good target = 60 - 70 dB, and 50 dB is the bare minimum. To realize image attenuation above 50 dB, shielding is usually required.
Three or more L-C tank band-pass filters may be required when your image frequency is close to the IF frequency. Choose both your intermediate frequency and your bandwidth wisely.
2. After selecting your bandwidth, tweak the inductance and only if necessary, make minor adjustments to your set 3 dB bandwidth to give standard, or near-standard value coupling capacitors that you own. Obviously, you can place fixed capacitors in series or parallel, or even couple your resonators with a variable capacitor.
3. I favor size 50 to 80 powdered iron toroids with number 2, 6, or 10 material for a reasonably high Qu.
4. I aim for an insertion loss of of 3-4 dB; especially above the 40 Meter band; consider the variances discussed earlier
5. I aim for a return loss of at least 20 dB; consider the variances discussed earlier
6. If you can, measure your bread boarded filter bandwidth to confirm or improve the GLPA simulation. Insertion and return loss are easily measured — see EMRFD and the RF Workbench web pages on this site for methods.
I provide no graphic tutorial of DTC08; however, some work flow suggestions follow:
Open up DTC08, choose your center frequency, Qu, inductance and bandwidth and then press the Calculate button. Adjust the L until you get close to a standard value coupling capacitor from your parts bin. If required, you may also tweak the bandwidth value to get the needed coupling capacitor. It's wise to change the L before BW since changes in inductance don't cause too many complications within limits.
Name and save your filter to a specific file system directory or folder; or simply save it as the default file.
Open GPLA08 and load your recently saved filter file. Press the Plot button and then the Click to Review Circuit button. In some cases, you will have to type the CF in the Cursor Data text box and press Plot to set the cursor at your center frequency.
Change the coupling capacitor(s) to a standard value using the Enter New Value data entry controls.
Adjust the series end coupling capacitors to standard values. and if S11 is an issue for you, tweak them up and down while observing S11. Re-establish your center frequency by tweaking the parallel tank tuning capacitors and then re-plot to ensure the CF is lined up with the center of the plot.
In Part 3, I provide 3 filter design examples. Your own filter designs will be the most important examples to study.
Part 3: Band-pass Filter Examples
Example 1: An 80 Meter Band Filter
Above — Breadboard photograph of the 80M filter. This example filter may hit home for you — I like listening to CW at and below the 3560 KHz QRP calling frequency, however, another local Ham likes to talk on 75 meters SSB at or above 3790 KHz. This situation calls for a narrow band-pass filter. With my filter, the attenuation at 3790 KHz = ~ 24 dB; had I built a wide bandwidth filter, for example, 350 KHz BW; the attenuation at 3790 KHz, would only be ~4 dB. Perhaps a 3 resonator filter with even steeper skirts would be better?
I'll show the design process from start to test.
Above — The basic DTC08 data entry fields were populated. I chose a 100 KHz bandwidth and tried different L values until Cm = 10 pF, since I have a whole drawer of 10 pF capacitors. I believed my Inductor Q would be at least 225 and wound 25 turns of #22 AWG on a T68-2 toroid and expanded or contracted the windings until I measured 3970 nanohenries. In reality, we should measure the inductor Q and in future I will, however, my sense is that few builders do.
Above — After saving my filter, I opened it up in GPLA08 as above. I replaced #4 with a standard 10.0 pF value, and started tweaking the end caps; parts #1 and #7 to gain a better S11 per my obsession with return loss. Retuning #3 and #7 re-establishes the center frequency and allows the S21 and S11 values to be interpreted. I settled on this filter and headed for the bench.
Above — Schematic and analysis of the breadboard. Click for another photograph. In reality, I bench determined the exact capacitance needed to tune each tank at 3.56 MHz with 2 large air variable capacitors that I removed and measured after peaking the filter. For each tank, I try to get just below this value with fixed value capacitors and add a small (2.5 - 22 pF, or so) air variable trimmer capacitor for peaking.
You need to test with capacitance under and over that required to ensure you properly tuned each L-C tank to resonance. Your parts collection, stray capacitance, mistakes or inductance variations in the toroids necessitate custom tuning of your tanks on the bench. I give capacitance values that should work, but it's up to you to ensure resonance of each tank. I find narrow BW filters require a steady hand to tune.
After peaking the tank in your oscilloscope, record the peak-to-peak voltage. Remove the filter and connect your signal generator to your scope with an RF barrel connector and again record the peak to peak voltage. The difference between the 2 is your insertion loss. You can calculate IL with Applet H on this page . Next, perform return loss measurements. If you can, determine the true 3 dB bandwidth of your filter by sweeping it with SA plus a generator. My filter 3 dB BW = 124 KHz.
Example 2: 20 Meter Band Superheterodyne Receiver Filter
A fictitious builder wants a superheterodyne receiver that covers 14.0 - 14.350. His IF = 2 MHz. The local oscillator = 12 MHz. The image frequency = (12 - 2) = 10 MHz. He centers his filter at 14.020 MHz. In this simulation-only example, we'll go from 1 resonator to 3.
Above — A single resonator with series matching capacitors "built up" in Ladbuild08.
Above — The GPLA08 plot of the single tank filter. The bandwidth = 417 KHz.
Increasing the end capacitors to 22 pF to try to increase return loss increases
the 3 dB bandwidth as shown
here, so we better
stick with the original design.
In GPLA simulations with a perfectly centered filter, S21 = the insertion loss and S11 is negative of the return loss.
Above — Assessing image frequency attenuation in GPLA08; this sucks — only 36.2 dB down. We need to add a tank.
Above — Building up a filter in DTC08, I increased the L from 1000 to 1150 nH to give a Cm near to a standard value.
Above — The GPLA08 plot of the double tuned filter. I set #4 to 2 pF and #1 and #7 to 18 pF (nearest standard values). #3 and #5 were slightly tweaked to center the filter. The simulated IL is only up 1.24 dB from the single resonator version. You are probably wondering why I didn't design the filter for a CF = 14.020 MHz in DTC08 above to keep consistency. I probably should have, but wanted to illustrate the versatility of GPLA08 to center filters "on the fly".
Above — Assessment of the 10 MHz image — now it's 69.2 dB down. Although this filter will work well for his particular receiver specifications, this fastidious builder wants even greater image attenuation and decides to add a third resonator!
Above — Building up a filter in TTC08, I chose an L of 1100 nH to give a Cm close to a standard value.
Above — The GPLA plot of the 3 tank filter. I performed no parts tweaking — it's up to you from here on in. The simulated IL remains quite reasonable.
Above — The GPLA08 assessment of the 10 MHz image frequency. Now 100 dB down!
Above — The 1 tank and 3 tank filters superimposed to show the skirt action. The 3 dB bandwidth is the same!
Example 3: A 20 Meter Band-pass Filter for a Builder from Argentina
Above — An Argentinean builder emailed that he wanted a band-pass filter optimized for 14.070-14.095 MHz RTTY but also usable for the CW sub-band and lower SSB frequencies. He wanted a center frequency in the RRTY sub-band and I chose 14.079 MHz. Tuning this filter to a center frequency as low as 7.030 MHz for CW should be possible with the variable capacitor value shown, but as mentioned, you really need to do this carefully on your bench. I employed T80-10 toroids and scrunched or expanded the 16 turns of # 22 AWG wire until they measured exactly 1000 nH.
The best return loss will only occur when your filter is perfectly tuned to the test frequency, so tune carefully.
Above — The schematic + bench analysis for the 20 Meter band double tuned band-pass filter. My original design called for 22 pF series end capacitors to get a decent return loss. After building and measuring the circuit, the results were disappointing: insertion loss = 3.7 dB and a return loss = 17 dB. I wanted a better S11 and IL, so I decreased the end capacitors to 20 pF and savored the measured data shown in the schematic.
Simulating this tweaked design in GPLA08 unveiled a lower return loss than the original design simulation with 22 pF end capacitors; exactly opposite to my bench observations.
Bench work reveals the truth — The filter you get is dependent on factors such as parts types + tolerances, stray reactance, layout, test gear and any bench errors. For example, I don't know the Qu of my 1 uH inductors, but suspect that the Qu is greater than the 250 specified. Also my intended - 3 dB bandwidth was 350 KHz, yet my filter = 315 KHz; in part, because I lowered the series end capacitors, but also due to other fore mentioned factors.
Many popcorn builders can't easily measure their filter bandwidth. Does it really matter? Probably not, however, the big realization for me is that unless you measure, you won't actually know your data like insertion loss, return loss, or bandwidth — simulations are great, but don't obliterate the need for bench testing as possible.
Consider this; with the SPICE program you can design a circuit with a 2N3904 and run 400 mA of current through it — the transistor won't smoke 1 bit ! Project outcomes depend on understanding and employing best practices, experience and measurement on the bench. Finding best practices proves difficult in a day and time when general scientific literacy, the number of expert mentors and interest in analog electronics are all waning.
Click for another photo of the filter. On my actual filter, I used high Q, air variable trimmer caps that only had a capacitance variation of 15 pF or so. I soldered in fixed capacitors to get close to the capacitance needed to tune each tank. If possible, I think its better use smaller value trimmer caps because they permit finer tuning. The air variable trimmer offers high Q plus you can see when the capacitor is fully meshed (maximum C). This signals that you need to add more fixed capacitance to that tank for peaking.
To repeat; our parts collection dictates our band-pass filter outcomes. Size 50 to 68 #6 material toroids will work fine for most HF frequencies above 3 MHz. Don't stress out too much if your insertion or return loss is a little higher than you wanted; in all likelihood your filter will work fine and you'll be glad you didn't just copy some else's design and rob yourself of the design experience.
I am hopeful, this web page will inspire a few builders to experiment with band-pass filters for their receivers and other applications. My sincere thanks to Wes, W7ZOI for his guidance with filter design.
QRP — Posdata for August 2012 — NE612 Mixer Band-pass Filters
I designed some band-pass filters for NE612 based front-ends with LadBuild and GPLA and show my 75 Meter band filter design figures below. I'm not a fan of employing an NE612 as a receiver mixer since it easily overloads and spews harmonics when mixing strong input signals. The 1K 'RF gain' pot found in many receivers, or the more conventional switchable attenuator pad prove essential when receiving 'booming' signals with a NE602/NE612 mixer in your front-end.
Still, for field-portable tranceivers/receivers, the NE612 mixer keeps the current and radio size down nicely.
Above — My filter centered at 3.69 MHz. I set the 3 dB bandwidth higher than my usual 200-300 KHz so I could tune a good chunk of the 80-75M band without losing too much signal.
To establish some starting L and C values, I built a classic form filter in DTC08 with a 50 Ω input and output impedance centered at 3.69 MHz. After some tweaking, I settled on L = 4700 nH, Ce = 148 pF, coupling capacitor Cm = 27 pF and about 220 pF (Ct) to resonate each tank.
Next I changed the termination R's to 1500 Ω in DTC08 to simulate the right half of the filter matched into the 1K5 input impedance of an NE612. This gave me some Ct and Ce values to start with. I started Ladbuild 08 and built up a schematic.
In a seperate experiment, I determined that the resonator Qu of a 3.7 MHz L-C tank with an L of 4700 nH wound on a T50-2 core, was ~150.
Above — The completed schematic. My filter exhibits an attenuation of ~70 dB at the top of the AM radio broadcast band (1500 KHz) providing I shield it in an RF-tight box. I took the 47.6 Ω input Z from the 1K pot and my 50 Ω antenna in parallel. An input Z of 50 Ω would work just as well in simulation and on-bench.
In Part A, I show a possible way to resonate each tank with 1 fixed C and a trimmer capacitor. In Part B, I omitted this detail and just show the calculated C needed for resonance as a variable capacitance.
To make this filter with GPLA, I tweaked the capacitor values
to nearest standard value parts and tuned the filter with the GPLA
Tune Part Value
controls while looking at the waveform and my 3 dB bandwidth. I love
tweaking values in GPLA and over the years have
designed several hundred RF filters for readers.
The rubber hits the road on the bench however! You can get an E.E. degree without melting solder in this day and time — but only bench measurements tell the truth.
Please tune each tank carefully like I mentioned earlier... For example, say a tank needs 180 pF for resonance, but you don't know this. You solder in a 100 pF cap and a 5-50 pF enclosed ceramic trimmer capacitor into the L-C tank. While watching the 'scope this tank will "peak" since the tank will exhibit its highest peak-peak voltage when the trimmer cap is set to 50 pF and fall off as you decrease the C of the trimmer. You might think you peaked the tank, however you' re actually under by 30 pF!
While leaving the trimmer set to maximum C (peak-peak voltage) in this theoretical example, if you tack solder in another 10 pF cap your 'scope will show an even greater pk-pk voltage. , If you remove this 10 pF cap and then place in a 27 pF cap, the pk-pk voltage will go even higher since you're almost at the target 180 pF. If you removed the 27 pF cap and tack soldered in a 47 pF cap, the pk-pk voltage in the 'scope will go down since your now at 197 pF. Thus you know that resonance is somewhere between 177 and 197 pF.
Of course you could decrease the trimmer cap C and stil
use the 47 pF cap, however, my description isn't a prescription to follow,
just some things to think about. Sometimes I remove a trimmer cap and
measure it to ensure the cap is not set to maximum C; that would tell me I
need to add more fixed capacitor(s) to the tank. Air variable trimmer
caps give visual indication since maximum C occurs with maximum mesh.
Unfortunately they are rare and expensive.
On my bench I keep a pair of small 12 to 400 pF air variable caps and temporarily solder them into my tanks. After peaking, I remove and measure them — then I have a good idea of what capacitance is needed to resonate the tank at my test frequency.
It's all an experiment.
QRP — Posdata for August 2012 — More NE612 Receive Mixer Band-pass Filter Experiments
Above — NE612 input circuits. The NE612 datasheet specifies a 3 pF
input capacitance + a 1K5 input resistance.
If you look around the Web, many builders just run a single tank for band-pass filtering. While okay for novelty-grade rigs, the poor filter stopband may unleash some ugly problems in the mixer and on down the receiver chain.
Above — A double tuned circuit with the L-C tanks named 1 and 2 and a series capacitor to match Tank 2 to the NE612.
Most builders match Tank 1 into its 50 Ω source with a capacitor divider, or a matching transformer. For Tank 2, some enthusiasts just connect the Tank 2 coil directly to pin 1 as shown in Figure 1a. Without the matching series capacitor, unfortunate side effects may arise...
Above — The low-pass skirt of a double-tuned filter may attenuate higher frequencies poorly when no series capacitor (or other network) matches Tank 2 to the NE612 input. I perfectly matched Tank 1 to its 50 Ω source just connected Tank 2 to a 1500 Ω resistive load in this simulation. I wonder how bad things get in the real world when a complex impedance is involved?
Above — I designed a filter for a 20 Meter band CW receiver centered at 14.030 MHz with DTC and GPLA. The design 3 dB bandwidth = 245 KHz. NE612 filter design was discussed in QRP — Posdata 1.
I then breadboarded the filter with T68-6 inductors, but common lower Qu ceramic trimmer capacitors.
Above — The DTC/GPLA filter design with Tank 2 evolved to provide single-ended input for the NE612.
I wanted to test 2 questions:
1. Does the 0.1 μF coupling cap connected to the cold end of Tank 2 and Pin 2 change the bandwidth or filter skirt shape?
2. Will the 3.3 pF cap really match the NE612?
I expect that worldwide, the NE612 input impedance may vary slightly from part to part; different breadboards will exhibit different reactances and that although the datasheet specifies 1500 Ω , we may be dealing with a complex impedance that varies with the aforementioned factors plus perhaps, input frequency. I simply want a good filter with clean skirts.
Above — Experiment #1. I compared spectrum analysis of circuit A with B. I built and measured A and then cut away some copper to isolate the copper board grounding the Tank B parts. This "island" was AC coupled to the rest of the ground plane with a short leaded 0.1 μF ceramic capacitor.
I saw no significant difference between Circuit A and B — it appears the 0.1 μF capacitor does not affect the filter parameters to any extent.
To simulate a NE612, I soldered a 1K5 Ω 5% resistor across Tank 2. Tank 2 was transformer coupled to the 50 Ω Z required for spectrum analysis. A 20 dB pad ensured a strong return loss and a safe input amplitude for the SA.
Above — Spectrum analysis of Figure 2A or B. I saw flat topping of the waveform – almost double humping with a higher than wanted 3 dB bandwidth; this bothered me. Fixing this problem was Experiment #2.
Above — A zoom of the poor coupling of Figure 2A or B. From my experience building filters, I suspected a termination resistance mismatch in Tank 2 ; exactly what I was trying to avoid!
Above — I swapped a trimmer capacitor for the series 3.3 pF fixed cap in Tank 2. Then I reconnected the circuit into my test set up.
Above — A photo of my TG + SA measurement after tweaking the newly added trimmer capacitor and peaking each tank. I shifted the SA screen center over so the tracing could be seen without all the hash marks in the center. Wonderful.
Above — A zoom of the now matched Tank 2. Due to the bench-altered Tank 2 match, my low-Q variable capacitors and other factors, the 3 dB bandwidth now is just over 300 KHz.
I'm not sure if these experiments reflect what actually happens with a NE612 input band-pass filter, however, I plan to match my second tank with a series trimmer capacitor in future NE602/NE612 work. I also want to explore balanced input.