RF Workbench Page 5
Welcome to part 5 of a web series exploring basic RF measurement and bench practices. This installment builds on the information from RF Workbench Parts 1 - 4.
In RFWB #5 I share a hodge-podge of thoughts and circuits concerning power measurement on the beginner-level RF workbench. Consult EMRFD for more support. Big thanks to my mentors: Wes, W7ZOI. Bob, K3NHI and John, K5IRK for their support as I advance to the basics.
Power Measurement Empowers You
Before embracing the 50 Ω RF environment, I misjudged the need to quantify small signal power — now I get that we measure lots of low-level signals on the 50 Ω RF workbench. Whether you're driving a mixer RF port with -30 dBm to reduce spurs, or tweaking an amplifer-under-test to exact the best S21, low-level RF power measurement is fundamental to fruitful RF design.
1 way to measure low-level RF power includes building a log linear RF power meter (PM) based on the Analog Devices AD8307. The basic circuit I show posits that most of you measure from MF to HF and don't need a PM that reads flat into UHF and further; a simple, 2 chip circuit might even prompt you to actually build a barebones PM for your QRP workbench.
Search for and download the Analog Devices AD8307 Revision D datasheet — it's definitely worth a read. Kudos to the design team that brought us a truly milestone device for low-cost power measurement.
Analog Devices offers a whole family of log-amps at different frequency ranges — for example, the AD8311 Log Amp/Detector covers from ~100 MHz to 2500 MHz. A sister product, the AD8302 2.7 GHz RF / IF Gain Phase Detector looks amazing.
1. A Barebones RF Power Meter
- Lacks the usual input frequency compensation network needed to keep power measurement flat over several hundred MHz — since most input compensate by attenuating HF, this simple version offers stronger sensitivity at HF than usual.
- Good from MF up to about 100 MHz.
- 4.5v B+ to eliminate power supply decoupling issues and to give greater battery life than a 9v battery.
- Minimum input power about -70 dBm. Maximum input power +15 dBm. Requires a metal box.
Big thanks to Wes, W7ZOI for letting me present his simple RF power meter. I found numerous AD8307-based RF power meter designs in periodicals and on the web and the writers devised simple to elaborate input compensation networks to establish a flat response out to 500 MHz — involving parts such as nH-level inductors, chip resistors and capacitors. This PM goes the opposite direction; a plain circuit for you builders who measure under 100 MHz; particularly at HF.
AD8307 Input Pin 8: Some Graphs and Notes:
Above — The lack of input compensation might raise a few eyebrows! A sweep of the Barebones PM by Bob, K3NHI shows a reasonably flat response out to 100 MHz that's comparible to some of the 0-100 MHz range of wider sweeps in the published compensated circuits I've read.
Above — A different Barebones PM plot from Wes, W7ZOI that goes out 500 MHz. For HF work, this power meter proves adequate for QRP HomeBuilders. By all means, add some input compensation if you want to — good circuit examples abound. For example, EMRFD Figure 7.13, or Bob Kopski's — An Advanced VHF Wattmeter referenced in Section 5.
AD8307 specifications allow a typical +/- 0.3 dBm "ripple" in the input to output transfer characteristic. Bob, K3NHI verified this ripple in his lab. Therefore; depending on the position of a signal in the transfer curve, a move between 2 different power levels may yield as much as 0.6 db peak difference error. Figure 8 of the Rev D datasheet shows this. Figure 24 plus associated text tells why this occurs: the transfer characteristic is a chunk or segmented realization of a log transfer characteristic. It's really good — just not perfect.
If you consider the cost of thermal sensor power meters from Agilent, Techtronix, or even the Mini-Circuits PWR-6GHS, the AD8307 seems a bargain.
Measuring U1a Pin 1 With a Panel Meter
The first output at Pin 1 drives nearly any junkbox DC panel meter you might own The schematic specifies a 0-200 uA movement, however a 1 mA meter movement also works by tweaking R1 and R2 to establish the correct current. In the circuit shown the R = 13.6K. This R establishes the current required to drive the 200 uA meter Wes used in his design — nothing more. A wide variety of panel meters work because the drive current comes from an op-amp. Don't order an expensive panel meter just because you want to employ a 100 or 200 uA model — choose your meter because it affords good needle movement and resolution to allow accurate power measurement.
Although elementary for some, the following diagram shows you how to measure the maximum current for your meter: 100 uA, 200 uA, etc.
Above — In my shoebox sat 4 different panel meters. I measured 1 meter and show the math above — a 191 μA meter.
Above — An antique 1 mA panel meter driven with 1 mA to achieve full deflection.
Meter resolution presents the biggest problem for junkbox panel meters and if you look around the web, you'll see some great examples how builders calibrated and/or marked the scale on their AD8307 circuit panel meters.
Above — Panel meter markings on my friend Peter's power meter.
I personally like my panel meters to read about 75% of full deflection at 7 dBm, but it's really your choice. Adjust R1 and/or R2 up or down to give the desired amount of meter deflection for whatever panel meter you own.
You may apply Ohm's law to figure out the maximum in-situ current for any panel meter. In the schematic the total R is 13.6K, so when you apply +10 dBm applied to the power meter input, the current in the panel meter will be 2.0v /13.6K = 147 uA. The maximum 200 uA will occur with a Pin 1 voltage of 2.72v. The op-amp won't go all the way to the positive rail, but If it did go all the way to 4.5v, you would hurl 331 uA into the panel meter. This exceeds the meter's uppermost scale, but likely won't destroy it.
The 4.7 uF cap can be any small uF capacitor value and low-pass filters the DC to smooth out the meter movement. I used a 10 uF in my breadboard.
I normally view the panel meter to tune resonant circuits and observe trends; but not to precisely measure power — it's often more accurate to quantify power readings at Port B since this eliminates panel meter resolution issues.
How to Measure Power at Port B
We measure the DC voltage at port B and use equations or graphs to translate this voltage into an actual power reading after reference calibration. U1a and U1b are unity-gain voltage followers to buffer the AD8307 output. U1B features a 5K potentiometer in series with a 10K shunt resistor to form a voltage divider that changes the 25 mV/dB AD8307 output to 20 dB/mV. Tweak the 5K pot to calibrate to get as close to 20 dB/mV as possible, although since the LM358 buffers just pass on the DC voltage changes of the AD8307, the pot does not technically alter log linearity.
Wes published some essential notes on his web site. On page 8, you find his formula to convert a measured DC voltage into dBm. I wrote a program that incorporates his formula: Applet L on my Design Center web page; except that it takes calibration power at -10 dBm and -20 dBm.
Let's run through 1 example:
Above — My prototype RF-tight breadboard of the Barebones PM. I ran my 'trademark' die case box, BNC RF input and Port B connectors, a common ground lug and feedthrough capacitors for the B+ and panel meter connections. I placed a BNC to RCA adaptor on Port B to allow the insertion of a standard-type positive DVM probe. A black alligator clip terminates the distal end of the negative probe on all my DVMs. I just clip it onto the ground lug.
Above — A view of my breadboard showing my 100 uA panel meter and the 4.5v battery pack. I raised R2 in the original schematic up to 8K2 to set my preferred needle movement in this 100 uA panel meter. A meter with linear markings might be better?
Some Further AD8307 Notes
After power up, you'll notice a DC output voltage around 0.22v or so with no input signal; this arises from wideband noise caused by resistors and amplifiers in the AD8307— all normal.
If possible, verify a 25 mV per dB power change with a manual sweep using a sine wave signal generator on the input and a DVM to AD8307 Pin 4. If you don't have the test gear to perform this function check, no problem.
The AD8307 input resistance = 1100 Ω , so we must place a resistor in parallel with the input to establish 50 Ω. Many builders just shunt a short-leaded 51 Ω resistor from input to ground like Wes did, however, you might also see builders place a 1% tolerance 53.2 Ω R in that slot to derive an input Z of 49.9 Ω. I did this in another "blinged-out", frequency compensated AD8307 meter I built for future UHF circuit experiments.
With 20 and/or 40 dB taps, attenuator pads and some 50 Ω cables, a Barebones AD8307 PM can measure everything HF you might build or buy for your QRP workbench. I posit that a simple AD8307 power meter may form the heart of a basic, first QRP workbench. Lacking a oscilloscope when I started in radio electronics, I measured RF with a germanium diode RF probe and a DVM — I would have enjoyed a simple log power meter plus a basic calibrator, however, the AD8307 did not exist back then.
Above — Some builders lament because an AD8307 (in DIP) costs around $10.00. I bid for and bought the AR version chip shown above for $4.42 USD. The above green Proto Advantage breakout board cost $1.00. To compare; some people spend $5.00 for a boutique coffee in Canada — it's all good.
The SMD packaged AD8307AR may offer better performance above 100 MHz with its lower lead inductance.
QRP — PosData for Dec 3, 2013
Realize your bench acumen — adapt and build some test equipment to suit your needs. Steve, VK2SJA crafted a version of the AD8307 PM. Click for his beautiful box featuring a 1mA meter movement. Aided by the Tonne software "Meter" program and the AD8307 datasheet, his ranks among the best I've seen. Kudos Steve.
2. Power Meter Calibrators
1. CMOS Clock Oscillator RF Calibrator @ -10 dBm
Bob, K3NHI designed a 10.0 MHz reference oscillator for -10 dBm that might help equip the beginner bench. This CMOS signal source does not need an AC power reference to calibrate it — just a DVM to make a DC measurement and your good to go!
In addition to calibrating an AD8307-based PM, you might use this -10 dBm reference to calibrate other gear including homebrew sine wave signal generators; that's what I'll do later.
Above — The recommended CMOS clock oscillator for the
RF calibrator. Digi-Key part #
CTX772-ND. Data sheet.
If you substitute another CMOS clock, it must swing nearly rail-to-rail for accuracy. Bob intended this calibrator for those who lack the bench instruments needed to precisely calibrate RF devices since only a DVM is needed for calibration. This generator also offers a range of calibrated harmonics as Bob described in his January-February QEX article A Simple RF Power Calibrator — great when you want to examine a spectrum analyzer over a limited span.
Above — My version of the K3NHI CMOS signal source (presented with the permission of Bob, K3NHI). The 52.3 Ω resistor is a standard 1% part and I bought 5 for all my AD8307 projects and this little signal generator. In my first version, the trimmer resistor was 500 Ω and worked okay, but the 200 Ω trimmer improved calibration. I ordered 10 Bourns 200 Ω and 10 Bourns 500 Ω trimmers on eBay for a few dollars and after studying Bob's published work and applying his influences to my own, I now love to precisely calibrate or bias circuits with a 200 or 500 Ω trimmer R as appropriate.
QRP — PosData for November 22, 2012
If required, you may substitute a 51 Ω resistor for the 52.3 Ω specified.
Per Bob's QEX 2010 Tech Notes and his emails specifically about calibrating the AD8307 with a CMOS square wave: Modern AD8307 chips are better calibrated with a -10 dBM square wave. To test log linearity after CMOS signal generator calibration, apply a sine wave signal generator to your power meter and adjust its output to get the same power meter DC output voltage as with the CMOS generator. Then insert attenuator pads on the now calibrated sine wave generator to assess the mV/dB change with different power levels.
Bob's original CMOS calibrator outputted - 20 dBm, however, he updated it to output -10 dBm in 2010 as reported in his QEX 2010 Tech Notes.
Some readers have asked why calibrate the AD8307 at 10 MHz? Calibrate at whatever frequency you want, or more than one. However, at 10 MHz, the AD8307 exhibits its best log performance compared to other frequencies. Click or click for datasheet graphs.
Above — The DVM calibration port reading (2 volt scale) from my CMOS clock calibrator after calibration. That was easy!
Above — The calibrated CMOS clock RF calibrator in my 50 Ω terminated scope.
Above — The breadboard of my version of the K3HNI CMOS -10 dBm RF calibrator. For best results, stick it in a shielded box. When correctly calibrated, it outputs -10 dBm on an AD8307 PM, -14 dBm on a spectrum analyzer and -13 dBm on a conventional, thermal-sensor power meter.
Above — The procedure for calibrating an AD8307 PM with the -10 dBm square wave CMOS signal source.
Above — When I connected the calibrated CMOS clock RF calibrator to my build of the Barebones PM, I measured 1.60v with my DVM; the -10 dBm reference voltage. Since the log-linear power changes 20 mV/dB; for my calibration reference voltage: 1.40v = -20 dBm, 1.20v = -30 dBm, 2.0v = 10 dBm etc.
Remember that the Barebones PM runs on a battery pack and over time the B+ will change. Each time I measure power with the meter I first calibrate it to establish the -10 dBm reference voltage.
Here's a simple formula that only works for 20 mV/dB @ my particular 1.60v calibration voltage, but gives you the general idea:
Power in dBm = 50 x (V - 1.8)
So if I measure 1.94v: 50 x (1.94 - 1.8) = 7 dBm.
2. Sine Wave Oscillator for Calibration @ -10 dBm and -20 dBm.
You may also calibrate your AD8307 PM with a calibrated sine wave signal generator. Advanced builders who own the gear needed to measure RF power tend to use a sine wave for calibration.
It's easy to calibrate the AD8307 with a sine wave signal source. Normally we calibrate our sine wave signal generators with instruments such as a 50 Ω terminated 'scope, a spectrum analyzer, a calibrated power meter, or a 49.9 to 51 Ω terminating resistor plus a 10X probe etc., but if you lack these instruments, your stuck.
No problem. You may calibrate any appropriate sine wave oscillator at -10 dBm with your Barebones PM and the CMOS RF Calibrator shown earlier. Let's examine the procedure:
Calibrate the AD8307 PM with the CMOS square wave reference and record the DC voltage at the output of Port B. Connect up your sine wave generator and adjust its output until you get the same Port B DC voltage as the reference CMOS RF signal generator — your sine wave oscillator should now be calibrated to -10 dBm.
Above — I designed this simple 10.0 MHz sine wave calibrator to evaluate Bob's CMOS square wave RF calibrator and serve as an example sine wave reference oscillator. When running a regulated VCC of at least 12v and the tank is perfectly tuned, low distortion arises. I measured the second harmonic @ 39 dBc down. The L with 33 turns = 4.43 uH.
The initial tuning procedure goes like this:
- 1. Terminate the output with a 50 Ω resistor terminator, or a 50 Ω terminated 'scope, or your AD8307 PM.
- 2. Connect an ammeter between the VCC node and the regulated power supply.
- 3. Adjust the emitter trimmer R so that the circuit draws around 2.7 mA — then disconnect the ammeter leads.
- 4. Adjust the trimmer cap for the highest pk-pk voltage (and/or or best
looking waveform) in the 'scope, or highest
power in the AD8307 PM. Nominal total C to resonate my particular circuit was ~ 45 pF.
If not already done, connect the tuned-up sine wave signal source to a AD8307 PM. Adjust the trimmer potentiometer so the Port B DC voltage = the reference voltage measured during your CMOS RF generator power meter calibration. Your sine wave signal source is now calibrated to -10 dBm.
Above — The breadboard of my 10 MHz sine wave signal source. I included the optional switched 10 dB attenuator shown on the schematic inset. In the end I decided to just stick a removable 10 dB pad like this 6 dB pad in-line for my -20 dBm measurement.
Above — Craft accurate attenuator pads with parallel + series resistors and some creative energy. Lacking the proper 1% parts, I hand selected some 5% resistors among the values shown to the right and built a pad that precisely gave a 10 dB power drop at 50 Ω.
Now let's check the calibration of this little sinusoidal RF generator...
Above — When connected to the Barebones PM, I calibrated the output power of the sine wave generator by tweaking the trimmer pot to give an output of 1.60v; the same Port B voltage yielded by the CMOS RF calibrator.
Above — The 50 Ω terminated 'scope verification of my calibrated 10 MHz sine wave signal source: 200 mV pk-pk = -10 dBm. Wow, thanks for this Bob!
Above — The Port B voltage when a 10 dB attenuator pad was connected to the calibrated -10 dBm sine wave signal source: Measured power = -20 dBm. Notice the 20 mV/dB power drop — right on specification.
Refer to the section titled <How to Measure Power at Port B> Recall Wes' calculation needed 2 points to set the log linearity. I chose -10 dBm and -20 dBm instead of 0 dBm and -10 dBm so the CMOS RF calibrator could be used to calibrate any sine wave signal generators on hand.
The -10 dBm calibration reference power serves as 1 of the calibration points in Applet L while we derive the other by adding a 10 dB attenuator pad to a sine wave signal source output port. Don't connect an attenuator pad to the CMOS square wave calibrator — error in the AD8307 arises. Why? Analog Devices mysteriously changed the AD8307 at some point after 2004 and altered its crest factor — this disallows us performing log linearity calibration with a square wave.
Above — A 20 dB pad connected to the -10 dBm sine wave signal source yielded 1.22v at Port B in the Barebones PM. See the power calculation with Applet L below:
Above — The calculation of the output power with a 20 dB attenuator pad on the sine wave signal source output. We're off by 1 dB since it should have calculated a power of -30 dBm. Could this be error caused by my attenuator circuit, or non-linearity by the AD8307 PM, or a bit of both? We have to live with such problems. Still, the Barebones power meter seems quite impressive for a simple circuit that I scratch built and calibrated in about 25 minutes.
Above — The Barebones PM DC output voltage with a 30 dB attenuator pad on the output of my -10 dBm, 10 MHz sine wave signal generator: Measured power = -39.5 dBm. Again; a very good — but not perfect power meter.
A Barebones power meter allows builders with modest equipment to measure power, gain/loss, and with a return loss bridge, return loss at HF. I wish I owned this little gem back when I started out.
Richard, "Dick", N4HAY, posted some great notes on his blog. I recommend following his blog since he really digs deep and likes math — thanks Dick!
3. A Basic RF Workbench
Since January 2012, a handful of readers asked what I consider a good basic RF work bench. Again, I'm just an amateur hobbyist, so my opinion might show my ignorance.
- A stand-alone 50 MHz oscilloscope with at least one 10X probe. More bandwidth if you plan to work above 50 MHz
- If no oscillocope, an AD8307-based power meter The modern version of the diode RF probe.
- 3-4 50 Ω coaxial cables with BNC connectors; a 50 Ω scope feed-through terminator, 1-2 50 Ω BNC port terminators, a though-connector and some BNC connectors to solder onto temporary circuit boards or mount in a chassis.
- A homebrew return loss bridge.
- 3, 6, 10 and 20 dB BNC connector equipped attenuator pads, or a step attenuator.
- Signal generator(s) that cover most of HF; +/- VHF signal generators described in the next section.
- AADE L/C Meter IIB. Click
- 12 volt regulated power supply good for at least 1 amp.
- Digital multimeter. I use 2 and keep 1 set up for current measurement only.
- Frequency counter: homebrew or commercial. I ran a 40 year old, ovenized, accurate HP counter until 2012.
With these devices, as possible, you can work in a modular, 50 Ω environment and measure gain or loss in dB, return loss in dB and absolute power in dBm. Starting small and expanding your bench around 50 Ω input and output impedance devices will provide a lifetime of challenge and excitement in RF design.
Later, the big toys can follow: spectrum analyzers, VNAs, commercial signal generators and other lab quality stuff.
Equipping an RF bench presents quite a financial burden. I started small and slowly added pieces over time. Many pieces such as my L/C Meter IIB were gifts for holidays or my birthday. Other pieces were old, inexpensive equipment that I restored and calibrated.
Above — RF tools of the trade. We're RF experimenters! As scratch homebrew builders, gear like BNC, SMA and through-connectors, 50 Ω terminators and inline attenuators lie scattered on our benches; our fodder. Alternate photo.
4. VHF Signal Generators
Having only started at VHF in November 2011, my knowledge suffers, however, a search for accessible, affordable, good quality VHF signal generators disheartened me. Ten year old or newer signal generators covering the VHF band work up to several GHz and cost a small fortune.
Lamenting old timers often recommend the vaccum tube HP-608 series that covered ~10-480 MHz. These heavy, glowing beasts sometimes come up in estate sales or on eBay for $200-400.
Then, too, the HP8640 series seems attractive, however, they are full of decaying parts. Ken Kuhn and others restore old HP gear as a hobby and this direction certainly gives us a valid option.
I've investigated 1 or 2 new, low-cost, commercial signal generators that work into VHF, but they failed to excite me; especially after I downloaded the schematics and sat in disbelief over their poor design.
Some minimum commercial signal requirements might include stable, linear tuning, a metal chassis, 50 Ω output with a return loss greater than 20 dB and low harmonic distortion at all frequencies. Like the rest of our lives, our budget usually determines what we buy.
I decided to build my own VHF signal generators and document them on this web site. I've learned that home building signal generators between 50 and 200 MHz requires skill and care, but can be done.
What about digital clocks?
At VHF, DDS spurs get extreme as you get closer to the maximum clock frequency .
The Si570 looks intriguing, however, still requires an MCU + components, I haven't read any lab quality evaluations of the Si570 as part of a engineer-grade VHF-UHF signal generator and if you know better, please email me.
5. L - C Meters
If you search for opinions about which L/C meter to get, you'll find an abundance of super write-ups including those that cover measuring with Kelvin probes, SMD tweezers; or statements suggesting that if you really need maximum accuracy, purchase a VNA. I encourage you to research this yourself and find the best L/C meter for your bench. Here are my 2 cents worth of opinion and please remember — I'm often wrong.
I use an AADE L/C IIB meter to test inductors and capacitors for HF and even some VHF work. Yes, the AADE L/C IIB doesn't measure large-value electrolytic caps and so forth, however, considering the cost versus performance — it's accurate enough for the popcorn RF workbench.
The AADE L/C meter uses the method described by William Carver, W7AAZ in an article called The LC Tester published in Communications Quarterly, Winter 2003 . EMRFD page 7.12 briefly examines Bill's circuit and shows his original oscillator along with an extended range Colpitts oscillator designed by Wes. For brevity sake, I'll just discuss inductance measurement with Carver-style meters. With care, an inductance resolution of 5 - 20 nH might be realized with such a device.
We normally don't consider that our inductor is actually a network with L, a parallel C and losses that might be modelled as R in series with the L, or a R in parallel with the C depending on our model. The inductor also exhibits a self-resonant frequency and for our design purposes, we usually ignore all these details and just consider it a "pure L". My L/C meter's oscillator runs from a few tens to a few hundred KHz and generally lies below the self-resonant frequency of the inductors I measure with it. I've learned by sweeping/analyzing my completed filters, that as long as you avoid the coil's SRF, the low frequency Carver-style meter proves a stalwart inductance meter for most HF and some VHF applications.
Often, we popcorn builders want to make a filter, an oscillator, or a pi, or L match and we apply software or tables to calculate the L and C values needed to resonate our filter tank(s) or matching networks, or to synthesize a low-pass filter. These math-driven programs/tables assume the pure "pixie dust" L described eariler — disregarding the stray C and R. So getting all worked up about whether our coil is 4.50 or 4.59 microHenries seems moot.
Further, we man-handle our inductors [changing the inductance somewhat] into a breadboard laden with 5% (or greater tolerance) capacitors, copper board pads/paths that exhibit C, active devices and so forth. Then, too, we connect these resonators, or filters to other blocks with sometimes reactive ports, plus or minus shielding. Despite all these variables, miraculously, we make the filter with our "measured" L work!
As we move up in frequency, the effects of stray L effect magnify and at some point our filter networks may behave poorly.
For band-pass filters with Carver-style device measured inductors, we need only adjust each trimmer capacitor to get the highest possible peak-peak voltage, or RF power with our filter between a signal generator and a 50 Ω terminated scope, power meter respectively, or whatever. After sweeping these peaked filters, rarely do I need to compress/expand, or add or remove windings to tweak the L get the desired filter response when the filter input and output ports are well matched.
In the case of single frequency matching networks like the L-match, we might need to tweak up or down the L to derive strong port matching. In all cases, our software and the L/C meter can get us into the ballpark, but in-situ bench measurement with other instruments will garner the home run.
6. Bob, K3NHI — RF Power Meter Follow-on
Bob built a follow-on detector and power meter to his 2002 QEX power meter [Reference 3 in Section 7]. Bob gave me the green light to share his creation on my site. Thanks awfully Bob!
Click for the schematic in pdf format. Per typical K3NHI fashion, it's laden with trimmer pots allowing precise calibration — Bob's stuff contains loads of tweaks and wiggles! The new PM offers more flexibility + features including bigger battery supplies that won't quickly die when you fail to turn it off. He also included a means to measure battery voltage on the analog meter. Click for a photo showing the batteries. Low noise, high-speed, rail to rail, CMOS op-amps for IC1 and IC3, allow you to capture PEP during sideband transmitter measurement with appropriate attenuation.
The TS922 op-amp might be hard to find in DIP since that package went obsolete, however, it's available in SMD. If you can't get any TS922, likely other modern, high speed, rail to rail, CMOS op-amps will work fine — consult datasheets to ensure you meet or beat the TS922's performance for IC1 and IC3. Some of the latest design op-amps offer truly sublime specifications and evoke joy in our breadboards.
Bob critically isolated the entire RF sub assembly outlined in green on the schematic with metal shielding and feed through capacitors for the B+ and DC output. This helps ensure stable and accurate AC voltage measurement. Click or click or click for more of Bob's photographs.
 Roger Hayward, KA7EXM — A PIC-based HF/VHF Power Meter, QEX May/June 2005
 Wes Hayward, W7ZOI, Bob Larkin, W7PUA, Simple RF-Power Measurement, QST, June 2001
 Bob Kopski, K3NHI — An Advanced VHF Wattmeter, QEX, May/June 2002.
 Bob Kopski, K3NHI — A Simple Enhancement for the Advanced VHF Wattmeter, QEX, Sept/Oct 2003.
 Bob Kopski, K3NHI — A Simple RF Power Calibrator, QEX, Jan/Feb 2004 + Tech Notes article, QEX, May/June 2010.