K7LR MEMORIAL RECEIVER VFOs
This web page is a supplement to the K7LR Memorial Receiver Experiments Web Page
14 MHz VFO Circuit
Figure 1 is the 14 MHz VFO used to switch (clock) the CMOS switch product detector. The tuning range can be easily changed by adjusting capacitor CX. As shown, the the tuning capacitor has a frequency range of about 68 Hz. If you decrease CX to 47 pF, the tuning range increases to around 99 Hz. Increasing CX to 100 pF gave about a 40 Hz tuning range. When you use a larger tuning range, fine tuning can become difficult. A geared reduction dial is one possible solution. For simplicity, I prefer to just keep the tuning range low as reasonably possible and use a big knob on the main tuning variable capacitor. Even the 68 Hertz tuning range shown can prove difficult for fine tuning. As experimenters, we are continually problem solving. Choose the tuning range and/or methods which suit your personal needs.
The base 7 MHz oscillator is doubled since a D flip flop is used to clock the CMOS switch product detector. This oscillator has low harmonic content and this is important for suppressing the 7 MHz fundamental frequency and its harmonics in the frequency doubler. Some astute builders may even match the two diodes used in the doubler. Diode matching is discussed on this page. CV tunes very sharply and the output at Q3 is a clean sine wave. This in turn provides a well balanced square wave at each output of the D flip-flop. The Q3 output voltage was measured at -0.46 dBm (0.6 volts peak to peak into 50 ohms).
Choosing Capacitor Values
There are a number of ways to determine the capacitor values required to tune your VFO L-C tank circuit. It is pretty much essential to have a frequency counter and nice perhaps, to own a capacitance meter. Main tuning capacitors are typically harvested from an old radio or from the junk box. Its tuning range could be anywhere from 30 to 300 pF, or more. To limit the tuning range of this variable capacitor, normally you parallel a fixed-value capacitor and then series connect it to the top of L1 with a small, fixed-value capacitor. I performed this task entirely by trial an error using a frequency counter connected to the collector of Q2. Some fixed value NP0 or C0G capacitors plus a small trimmer capacitor are also required for tuning and to set the lower band edge respectively. Finding the right combination of capacitor values is painstaking, but with practice, gets easier. Once you have the basic capacitor values sorted out and your tuning range set, frequency stability experiments are then performed. This is known as VFO temperature compensation. Some times temperature compensation can be achieved by finding the right combination of NP0 and C0G capacitors. Additionally some negative or positive temperature coefficient capacitors may have to be soldered in and tested. Your final capacitor leads should be short as practically possible to reduce stray lead capacitance and for mechanical rigidity. Temperature compensation is discussed on this web page.
A 7 MHz VFO Circuit for Diode Ring Product Detectors
If you want to build a simpler version of the K7LR memorial receiver, a diode ring mixer may be substituted for the digital switch. The VFO requires modification as it will be run at 7 MHz. A different buffer is used and the Q2 to Q3 frequency doubler circuit is excluded. The diode ring product detector version is very nice. You could use a Mini-circuits TUF-1 , SBL-1 or alternate, or perhaps homebrew your own.
In Figure 2 is a VFO buffer configured to drive a 50 ohms input impedance, 7 dBm level, diode ring mixer. Change Rx to change the output voltage. With RX at 470 ohms, the output was somewhere around 5 dBm. This is useable for many situations. If you want exactly 7 dBm, the AC peak to peak voltage with a 51 ohm load resistor connected to the 3 turn link should be 1.43 volts. Adjust RX to achieve this voltage in your oscilloscope.
Note that if you build a diode ring product detector receiver version using the simple W7EL low pass termination network, the polarity of the 47 uF electrolytic capacitor will need to be changed as shown.
Key goals of this website include providing ideas, basic support and encouragement. I am delighted when builders make their own stuff and not copy my circuits. This is why we homebrew; to create, explore and share. Mike, K7LR did all of these very well.