Audio Transistor Input Impedance Experiments
I examined audio transistor amplifier input impedance during Spring — Summer 2010 and generated enough content for a web page.
On this web page, I explore determining AF amplifier input impedance by using network theory and calculation, plus direct measurement with instruments containing a Wheatstone bridge. This content emphasizes learning through performing bench experiments and I hope it sparks your own experiments and research into impedance measurement test equipment and theory.
Many RF circuits require termination with stages containing a well defined input impedance. Consider, for example, amplifiers that follow L-C low-pass filters, diode ring mixers or crystal filters — a known impedance (usually 50 ohms) must terminate these stages to optimize return loss. A special case is the diode ring product detector; which must be followed by a 50 ohm input impedance audio amplifier. How do we design or assess a small-signal audio amplifier that has a 50 ohm input impedance? This question spawned every experiment on this web page — the content grew and evolved along with my understanding of this topic.
Audio transistor input impedance may be calculated with equations or software, however, doing the math or using or affording these programs might be problematic for some amateur builders. Additionally, component variances such as transistor Beta and different power supply voltages can causes significant differences between the theoretical and the actual input impedance realized. Further, amplifiers, such as a feedback pair that involve combinations of series or shunt feedback can be difficult to analyze accurately using equations during small or large signal analysis. It may be easier for experimenters to just measure and tweak amplifier components on the bench — the focus of this web page!
As an rank amateur, I have much to learn, and by no means am an expert in electronic design. If you see an error on this web site, disagree with my analysis, or have suggestions for improvement, please email them — I am an amateur hobbyist, who earns no money from this site, and who relies on the assistance of others to keep the content as accurate and vibrant as possible.
- Part 1: Some basic transistor network theory and how to calculate input Z
- Part 2: 50 ohm input impedance Wheatstone bridge measurement
- Part 3: Measuring unknown impedances
- Part 4: Miscellaneous circuits, scans and photographs.
Small signal analysis refers to modeling or examining an amplifier at a single operating point (its bias point) and applying linear equations which assess the amplifier with no signal applied. In small signal analysis, we assume that the signal is so small that transistor gain, capacitance and other factors are static.
Part 1: Some Basic Transistor Network Theory and How to Calculate Input Z
Some basic network theory plus methods to calculate the input impedance of common emitter and common base audio amplifiers.
Three basic small-signal transistor parameters include beta, emitter resistance Re, and bulk resistance REB.
- Beta is the term used to designate the current gain of a common emitter circuit — it's the ratio of collector (output) current to base (input) current.
- Small-signal emitter resistance; Re = 26 / IE ,or, 26 divided by the emitter current in millamperes. For example, an emitter bias current of 0.52 mA gives a small-signal emitter resistance of 50 ohms, or visa versa . Re is the resistance seen looking into the emitter whether the stage input is the transistor base or emitter terminal. Re is the dynamic resistance of the input junction due to carrier action.
- REB represents the bulk resistance of the semiconductor not arising from contact resistance; in other words, it's the DC resistance of the base and emitter leads plus the pn junction. Typically REB = 2 to 6 ohms and is often ignored (your choice) when the current is low — say, for example, < 9 mA for a typical common-emitter voltage amplifier. In large power transistors or for switching operations, the typical REB value may vary. REB, in part, limits the maximal gain of a transistor.
- The constant 26 used when calculating the dynamic resistance of a forward-biased PN junction is derived via calculus. Professor Kuhn's website link containing the math.
There is also a base spreading resistance generally known as 'rbb' that, in effect exists laterally across the transistor. A simple model puts rbb at about 100 ohms in series with the base and it's one of the causes of finite transistor frequency response. While interesting, rbb isn't discussed further.
Above — the small-signal equivalent network of any transistor. re = 26/IE. Also, re + REB + any unbypassed external resistor may be termed the Transresistance, a DC ohmic value representing the total resistance of the emitter. The collector resistance RC is high because of its reverse bias. Collector resistance is not considered when calculating input impedance of simple AF transistor stages.
Calculating the input resistance of a
common base stage
Calculating the input impedance of a common base amplifier is easy. Input impedance = 26/ emitter current (IE). You can either bench measure or calculate the emitter current using DC analysis. Click for the formula to calculate emitter current . A complete example follows:
Above — An example common base amplifier and its input impedance calculation. In this example, emitter current is calculated using DC analysis. On the bench, it's better to un-ground the 1K emitter resistor and connect your ammeter between this resistor and ground to directly measure IE. REB was ignored and = 0.
Consider the 50 ohm input Z common base amplifier we often use after a diode ring product detector plus diplexer:
Above — A common base amplifier built for a direct conversion receiver in Spring 2010. This amplifier is shown in test setup for bench analysis — with a DC decoupling network and an AC coupled 4K7 resistive load. The emitter current established using 5% tolerance resistors was 0.51 mA. Therefore, the calculated input Z is 26/0.51 = 51 ohms. The return loss of this amplifier as measured with the active 50 ohm Wheatstone bridge device described later on this web page was a spectacular 32.1 dB! If a different power supply voltage or biasing/emitter resistors were used, the IE would change and along with IE, the input impedance and return loss.
This amp illustrates that testing and tweaking AF amplifiers on the bench will garner the best results. If I just copy someone else's design; perhaps with a different DC voltage, or decoupling network and don't adjust the emitter current by tweaking the base biasing or emitter resistor resistors, the input impedance could differ significantly. Whenever you build a common base amplifier, measure its DC current and as necessary, tweak resistors to get the current needed for a perfect impedance match. It is good practice to measure all the DC voltages and emitter current on any amplifier you build — you will learn what is normal, what to expect and perhaps detect errors or parts failure(s).
Performing return loss measurement is also a fantastic way to ensure good matching to the 50 ohm impedance diode ring product detector that feeds this amplifier.
Calculating the input resistance of a
common emitter stage
Calculating the input impedance of a common emitter amplifier is also straight forward, but not as easy as the common base amplifier.
In the common base amplifier, the emitter is the input element, therefore the input signal resistance is 26 / IE + REB. Often we ignore REB. If current of the common base amplifier is for example, 2 mA or so, then the 2-6 ohms of REB may be significant as 26 / 2 mA = 13 ohms. REB may be a factor because 2-6 ohms is a significant percentage of the total input resistance.
For a common emitter amplifier, the input resistance looking into the base is Beta ( 26/IE + REB + RE ). Again REB is often ignored. We need to include any transistor DC biasing resistors which are also seen by the input signal as it moves through the transistor base. An example follows:
Above — An example common emitter amplifier re-drawn to illustrate how the input resistances combine to provide the AC input impedance. In this case, the 270 ohm emitter resistor RE is un-bypassed. R1, R2 and the components RE, re and REB are in parallel as the DC supply acts as a short to ground for the AC input signal. The components RE, re and REB (if used) must be multiplied by the transistor Beta value (+ 1) since the resistance looking into the base is Beta times that looking into the emitter.
Therefore: Rin = (B+1)*(re + REB + RE'). Normally we ignore REB so practically speaking Rin = (B+1)*(re + RE')
Above — The math for the common emitter circuit shown directly above using DC analysis to calculate the current. On the bench, we just measure the emitter current (no need to calculate it). We assume IE = IC for a common emitter amplifier. REB = 0 (when ignored). If the 270 ohm resistor RE was bypassed with an electrolytic capacitor, the 270 ohm resistance would also = 0; and then Rb = Beta + 1 * (26/IE).
This theory explains how to calculate input impedance in 2 basic transistor AF amplifiers. Consult an electronics text for further explanation. Although the arithmetic is simple, quite frankly, it's a little boring. Let's go to the bench and have some fun. I was quite naive about measuring AF amplifier input impedance; however, my experiments yielded some knowledge and a strong appreciation for the Wheatstone bridge network. Onward...
Part 2: 50 ohm Input Impedance Wheatstone Bridge Measurement
Testing for a NULL or measuring the return loss of AF amplifiers with a 50 ohm input impedance.
Refer to the diagram on the right. Redrawn in a way more familiar to builders, the Wheatstone bridge network is just a pair of voltage dividers in parallel. We measure the difference in AC voltage between the ports labeled Out 1 and Out 2. The bridge is said to be balanced and produce NULL or 0 output when Out 1 and Out 2 are equal in voltage. Another description — when in perfect balance, the signal loss due to mismatch between the output ports is infinite. However, if this balance is disturbed by a mismatch between ports Out 1 and Out 2, an AC voltage appears and the return loss decreases in proportion to the mismatch (within limits and providing your instrument can measure accurately).
Let's focus on some practical bench applications in the new millennia: On your bench, you might employ a Wheatstone bridge network to measure return loss (or VSWR) or to simply to detect a NULL indicating a close impedance match between 2 stages. Specific examples include tuning your feed line and antenna, checking the match between a signal generator and a filter, or measuring an audio amplifier input impedance. In my estimation, the Wheatstone bridge lies among the most important test circuits in the amateur designer's arsenal; worthy of study and experimentation.
- The input signal can be AC or DC, but all discussion is confined to an AC signal source
- E96 (1%) metal film resistors were used in all Wheatstone bridges
- All bridges were tested at 1 KHz
- Ensure you do not overdrive your bridge; lest distortion occur! When a bridge is overdriven, you might cancel the fundamental frequency when balancing the bridge, but not the harmonics! Therefore, parasitic harmonics appear in the output that skew the the NULL or return loss values. I learned low pass filtering the amplified bridge output is really important.
- Any distortion in the bridge output means you must reduce your input signal drive level; however, this may reduce the accuracy of the RL measurements. There is no free lunch! You generally want just enough input signal to accurately measure the signal with the bridge at NULL.
Comments from the Workbench
Above — an evolution of the 4 resistor bridge into a device to measure impedance and capacitance. In its classic form, each bridge leg is a resistor voltage divider with a detector connected across ports A and B. If ports A and B have equal voltages and R1 = R2, then R3 and R4 must also be equal; the bridge lies balanced or in a NULL state. If you remove R4 and measure an unknown resistance, the bridge will return to balance after adjusting pot R2 to equal the unknown resistance. In most cases, R2 is calibrated and the impedance is read directly off the potentiometer dial. Bridges can be arranged to measure unknown capacitance, inductance , frequency and other parameters by using precision 1% fixed components, calibrating the 10 turn pot to indicate the desired parameter, or for deriving the unknown value via equations.
Builders of lore used bridges to quantify many values on the bench. Although we have better ways to measure inductance and capacitance today, the Wheatstone bridge is still the king when it comes to simple measurement of network impedances; for example, QRP antenna tuners. Some builders use an LED to indicate bridge imbalance.
Building a passive instrument to measure the return loss of a 50 ohm input Z audio preamplifier.
Non-radio folks don't generally understand this — to properly terminate a diode ring mixer, 50 Ω impedance stages are needed. The inspiration driving all the experiments on this web page was to design a 50 ohm input impedance common emitter audio preamplifier to follow a diode ring mixer. I could have just used the familiar common-base amplifier popularized by Roy, W7EL, but of course, wouldn't learn anything. Somehow, I became drawn in by curiosity and generated enough content to fill a whole web page.
I decided to try and build some return loss bridges and test them by using known, fixed-value resistors as the unknown impedance. My first bridge, was an AF version of this RF return loss bridge using a junk box 600 ohm, 1:1 audio isolation transformer. It didn't work until I rearranged it as shown in the schematic below.
Above — A simple return loss bridge using an AF transformer and 50 ohm detector. Suitable detectors are described here in the section covering return loss bridges — I used a 50 ohm terminated scope. Using 20 log (peak-peak voltage) to crunch the 50 Ω AC voltage into dB, the bridge was measured at open circuit, plus with various fixed 5% tolerance resistors terminating the Unknown Z port. Using a junk box 600 ohm 1:1 AF transformer, my results initially seemed good, but upon analysis were fraught with error. Note the suggested transformers in the schematic.
Above — The very first AF return loss bridge built. Anchored to the ground plane with resistors, the transformer was a 600 ohm junk box special. Although I was able to achieve a deep NULL using a 49.9 ohm resistor, the return loss was 86 dB; not possible. Additionally, other fixed resistors gave return loss values more than 4-5 dB away from the proper value. Likely, my junk box transformer lacked sufficient inductance for 1 KHz. For testing your bridge, use a formula to inform you of what RL value to expect for a given fixed resistor.
Above — The formula to calculate the expected return loss for a fixed resistor placed in the Unknown Impedance port on a Wheatstone bridge. Click for a table of Return Loss values for some non 50 ohm resistors. Your RL values, will rarely be exact, but should be close to the predicted value. A well functioning bridge should yield a return loss of > 40 dB using a 51 to 47 ohm resistor as the Unknown Impedance.
Above — A second bridge was built after obtaining a 100 Ω : 100 Ω AF transformer from Mouser Electronics. This transformer was ideal (each coil has ~ 1H in inductance!). Bench testing indicated good function. My results are tabled below:
Above — A table of the above 50 ohm Wheatstone bridge return loss measurements. These results are acceptable. The NULL with a 49.9 ohm resistor was incredibly sharp and garnered a RL of 56.73 dB. My AF source was a low noise 1 KHz, 50 ohm output impedance signal generator.
If you do not need return loss, and only require a NULL to indicate a match, a common 600 ohm transformer may work okay for you.
Building an active instrument to measure the return loss of a 50 ohm input Z audio preamplifier.
The results of my early experiments with a passive bridge were encouraging. Noting that most builders would have difficulty obtaining a 100 Ω : 100 Ω AF transformer, a version using op-amps was sought. My first 3 designs did not work properly and I became discouraged. Some guidance from Wes, W7ZOI allowed me to problem solve and experience success.
Above — Schematic of my active Wheatstone bridge, amplifier and low-pass filter for measuring the Return Loss of 50 ohm input impedance AF amplifiers. I built 3 copies of the above device; best results occurred when careful layout and planning were employed. Optimal performance occurred when encased in a metal box.
The bridge was built from 1% metal film resistors. 0.047 polyester film capacitors lightly couple the bridge to high impedance op-amp buffers labeled U1a + U1b. My experiments informed me that to minimize loading on the bridge is important. The LM358 is an excellent op-amp choice, but almost any other op-amp could be employed successfully. U2a is the differential amplifier and matching R1 + R3 and R2 + R4 with 1% tolerance resistors is critical; 5% resistors did not work well. The gain is non-critical — feel free to choose reasonable resistor ratios based upon the resistors you have in stock. The differential amp promotes the unfortunate side effect of amplifying both the desired AF source plus any common mode signals. Although common mode suppression is an important consideration when designing instrumentation amps, fortunately, performance is fine. A amplifier topology using a differential amp across the bridge was trialed, but functioned identically to the simpler differential amp shown. Consult a textbook for more information on Instrumentation amps. Much information was gleaned from Professor Ken Kuhn's web site.
The output is low-pass filtered by a single stage Sallen-Key low-pass filter with a peak frequency of 1 kHz and a Q of 5. This filter gain at 5 at 1 kHz is 0.328 at 2 kHz and 0.123 at 3 kHz. Thus, the second harmonic is reduced by a factor of (5/0.328) = 15.2 and the third harmonic is reduced by a factor of 40.6. Do not omit a low pass filter. I chose a 1 KHz cutoff, but experimentation indicated a low-pass cut-off frequency as high as 10 KHz may work okay if you plan to use the bridge at frequencies other than 1 KHz.
Power supply decoupling proved important. When less DC low-pass filtering (less than the 150 Ω plus the 100 uF capacitors shown) was employed, some low frequency audio noise appeared in the output.
I measured using a X1 oscilloscope probe on the output of U2b.
Above — A breadboard of the active Wheatstone bridge schematic located above. When tested with fixed value resistors, the RL @ 49.9 ohms was 55.4 dB and close to predicted value with other test resistors. This instrument will be put in a metal case and become a permanent part of my test equipment arsenal.
Part 3: Measuring Unknown Impedances
Building an instrument to measure the input impedance of an audio preamplifier using a NULL.
Above — One of several Wheatstone bridge circuits built in the Spring-Summer of 2010. In these bridges, the potentiometer was calibrated and the panel labeled using fixed resistances for calibration. One big challenge is range or resolution; dependent on the bridge resistor values and what impedance you are trying to measure. Greatest accuracy is associated with 5 or 10 turn potentiometers, but these are expensive. Often, I used standard, linear taper pots to save money during my experiments. Over 7 different bridges were built and tested. To save time, I didn't photograph many of my projects from the summer.
Above — A complete 1 KHz signal generator, low-pass filter and bridge circuit which became the prototype for most of my experiments in this section. Click for a high resolution photo of 1 of the breadboards during construction.
The 1 KHz signal generator is a digital oscillator built with 2 gates from a 4093. This excellent oscillator uses a single R + C network for tuning and requires a voltage regulator for frequency stability. The output signal is attenuated 3.6 dB and low-pass filtered by 4 poles of active filtering. A 10K pot controls the drive into the bridge circuit. The bridge outputs are labeled A and B and require buffering, amplification and low-pass filtering similar to the active bridge shown earlier. These functions and some comments on the bridge resistors come later.
Above — The oscilloscope waveform from the digital 1 KHz oscillator. Digital clocks fascinate me and this was an untried design. Initially a CMOS 555 timer was considered, however, I own many 4000 series NAND Schmitt triggers and pressed 1 into service. Another good choice might be the 74HC132. The first NAND gate (inverter) contributes 180 degrees of phase shift, while the RC low-pass filter tank circuit digitally shifts the AC the other 180 degrees. Output noise is filtered by both the low-pass filter and the input Schmitt trigger dead band or hysteresis. The result is a fairly crisp square wave that may rival the 555.
Above — The output of the 1 KHz low-pass filter. A sine wave is desirable, but not critical; suppression of energy in the range of 5-10 KHz, informed the filter design goal. At 8000 Hz, the attenuation is > 80 dB. All good.
Above — The buffer, differential amplifier and low-pass filter employed during this series of experiments. Function is identical to the similar stage described earlier.
Above — The output of amplified and filtered Wheatstone bridge at open circuit (no resistance at the Unknown Impedance port).
Above — the output of the amplified and filtered Wheatstone bridge at NULL (potentiometer setting balanced to match the resistance at the Unknown Impedance port. Below 2 mV, accuracy is lost.
Above — The math behind the bridge. I found when R Variable (Rv) was the same resistance as the fixed resistor R parallel (Rp), reasonable resolution was possible. "Reasonable resolution" means your pot has a good range of rotation as you go from the lowest to highest measureable impedance. Generally, Rv has to be less than the maximal impedance you are trying to measure.
R Scale (Rs) can be switched in decades via a panel mount switch to cover a wide range of resistance with good resolution, or just be 1 or 2 values. It's your design call.
Above — My poor man's impedance measurement device that uses a common 500 ohm linear taper pot as the balancing resistor. In order to get good pot resolution, the desired range is switched. This bridge measures impedances at the Unknown Port from about 27 ohms up to 1K with decent resolution. The blue circles depict how I calibrated the front panel of my device using 2 colors. This device had an average return loss of 32.5 dB when a NULL was obtained.
Measuring resistors to calibrate a bridge is quite different from real-world measurement of reactive AF amplifier loads — if the unknown resistance has a large inductive or capacitive reactance, obtaining good bridge balance might prove difficult. Your bridge can only null the in-phase signal. An extension to the standard bridge involves adding a series or shunt capacitance (depending on the phase of the reactance) to the A or B port. This may allow you to null the reactive part and also provide the reactive impedance value as well. An outstanding reference may be located with your favorite search engine: Look for the manual for the General Radio GR1650 Impedance Bridge. I found a copy and the download was very slow, but worth it. This manual may be the greatest reference every published on the Wheatstone bridge and comprehensively covers tuning out the reactance of complex impedances amid a myriad of other topics.
Above — The poor man's bridge measurement of a test AF amplifier on my bench. The reactive component of the amplifier input impedance was minimized using a 0.039 uF capacitor found experimentally. Of particular interest, is the difference between the calculated input Z and the actual input Z measured with the bridge.
The Beta of the 2N3904's in my collection ranges from about 100 to 225. Calculations with 2 different Beta values are shown (RE is well bypassed with a 470 uF capacitor, so, re = (Beta * 26/5.8 mA) . The measured input Z was 595 ohms. I confirmed this by removing the 0.039uF tuning capacitor, plus connecting a fixed 595 ohm resistance to the Unknown Impedance port. I then turned the potentiometer fully clockwise and adjusted it for a NULL. When the bridge was nulled, the potentiometer knob pointed at the same mark as when the amplifier was connected to this Unknown Impedance port.
Above — The oscilloscope output waveform of the amplifier circuit shown above: open circuit, with the potentiometer balanced as well as possible and finally, the potentiometer balanced with the addition of a 0.039 uF capacitor attached to Port B. Although, I was able to get a NULL without the capactitor by just tweaking the potentiometer, slightly better precision was obtained after adding the 0.039 uF balancing capacitor.
Part 4: Miscellaneous Circuits, Scans and Photographs
Above — More accurate results will be obtained with a calibrated 10 turn potentiometer to balance your bridge. A local store sold me this precision 10-turn, 10K pot for about 11 dollars (still expensive for me). They normally sell for twice this price in Canada.
Above — My first input impedance measurement device that didn't work. It turns out my experiments were performed incorrectly, however, I'm glad because this failure spurred me to investigate bridge networks. The series resistance method is worth understanding and happily, Jeff, AD6MX described the correct procedure in a private email received December 2010. I quote him below:
"The series resistance method for input impedance should start with the variable resistor disconnected from the node to be measured. The open circuit voltage at the end of that resistor is measured (the resistor value doesn't affect the open circuit voltage since there's no current into an open circuit.)
Next the free end of the variable resistor is then connected to the input node and the resistor is finally adjusted for half the open circuit voltage at the same end of the resistor, at the input node being measured. What happens is the variable resistor and the node input impedance form a voltage divider, with equal arms or branches.
The value of the resistor when measured out of the circuit is the same as the input impedance at the measured input node. This scheme has some assumptions: the driving amplifier has negligible output impedance compared to the measured impedance, and the input impedance is purely resistive, with no reactance or V-I phase shift.
The phase shift condition may be checked by taking these 3 voltage measurements: across each branch of the divider separately, and also the driving source voltage (across both branches in series.) The sum of the separate branch voltages should match the source voltage when there is little phase shift.
This 3 voltage scheme is used in some antenna analyzers in order to measure phase shift. For checking for the resistive condition, it's not important the 3 voltage method has a sign ambiguity which needs an additional step to resolve. Your description seemed to suggest starting with zero series resistance, but you see that is not the same as the procedure above. The applied voltage needs to be small enough that the amplifier remains operating in its linear range during the measurement".
Thanks for this info Jeff!
Above — A modified scan of General Radio's über awesome manual for the Type 1650-A Impedance Bridge.